Особенности экспорта российского газа в Европу
The author investigates the energy sector of economy of Russia, the peculiarities of the sector, its problems and their solutions.
This paper will examine the current situation as related to the global trade of natural gas and will draw some conclusions on how current developments will likely influence future trade and investment patterns. It will start by considering the increased influence of developing countries on energy markets and will continue by providing a detailed analysis of possible integration of energy markets, first within the European Union and then within the Asia Pacific region. It will continue with an analysis of gas production trends in Eurasia and the Middle East, two regions that are well-positioned to compete in both the European and Asia Pacific energy markets, before considering the implications for the Russian Federation, Qatar, and Turkmenistan. This contribution will then draw some conclusions based upon the topics discussed. This is an advance copy of an article that will be published as Rimma Subhankulova and Richard Wheeler, “Gas Exports to the Countries of the European Union and the Asia-Pacific Region,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 40, number 1 (autumn 2014, copyright 2015).
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.