Контроль стабильности показателей качества воды как условие устойчивого водопользования
With a view to early detection of statistical instability of water quality, it is necessary to analyze the probability of deviations of parameters under inspection from their most probable values. It is shown the outlook of using in this case time-frame inspection charts enabling to fix with high reliability the exit of the system from sustainable state, and on this basis to make management decisions, such as on the transfer of water management into emergency mode of operation or on the need to find the source of instability.
Paper presents an optimal control model with the stocks of two resource: one is the stock of exhaustible resource (groundwater) and the other is the stock of waste water which is a by-product of water use. Waste water could be re-used but this resource has a higher marginal cost than the groundwater. The characteristics of effi cient water consumption vector and dynamics of groundwater and waste water stocks are analyzed under the assumption of limited storage capacity of waste water stocks. The sensitivity of effi cient vectors of exogenous parameters (groundwater stock and its refi ll, marginal cost of renewable substitute) is investigated.
While variability of the motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is widely acknowledged, little is known about its central origin. One plausible explanation for such variability may relate to different neuronal states defining the reactivity of the cortex to TMS. In this study intrinsic spatio-temporal neuronal dynamics were estimated with Long-Range Temporal Correlations (LRTC) in order to predict the inter-individual differences in the strength of intra-cortical facilitation (ICF) and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) produced by paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS) of the left primary motor cortex. LRTC in the alpha frequency range were assessed from multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) obtained at rest before and after the application of and single-pulse TMS (spTMS) and ppTMS protocols. For the EEG session, preceding TMS application, we showed a positive correlation across subjects between the strength of ICF and LRTC in the fronto-central and parietal areas. This in turn attests to the existence of subject-specific neuronal phenotypes defining the reactivity of the brain to ppTMS. In addition, we also showed that ICF was associated with the changes in neuronal dynamics in the EEG session after the application of the stimulation. This result provides a complementary evidence for the recent findings demonstrating that the cortical stimulation with sparse non-regular stimuli might have considerable long-lasting effects on the cortical activity.
The given analytical report was prepared on the commision and by request of the European Enviromemnt Agency (EEA) and is a part of the common EEA project on the implementation of the assessment of assessments of the state of the environment in the pan-European region for presentation at the VII Ministerial "Environment for Europe" conference, Astana, Kazakhstan, 2011. The report was published within the series of reports by the EEA (Copenhagen, Denmark). It contains the assessment of environmental assessments in the Russian Federation and the country environmental profile of Russia. Special attention in the report is paid to such topics as water resources abd related ecosystems, as well as to the issues of green economy and resource efficiency in Russia.
The Ustja dialect belongs to the Vologda dialect group. The latter has a well documented realization of the etymological *ê as [i] between palatalized consonants, under stress. Among contemporary speakers, *ê in this context may be realized either as [i] (the dialectal variant) or as [e] (standard Russian). No speaker who only uses the dialectal variant has been recorded. The paper focuses on how particular wordforms and the speaker’s age correlate with the variation between the dialectal vs. standard realization.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.