Alexandre Koyré and Pierre Duhem developed contrasting arguments on the preconditions of the Scientifi c Revolution. Duhem saw the articles of condemnation of 1277 as the motivation for medieval scholars to reconsider Aristotles natural philosophy and to look for alternatives, such as impetus physics, which led toward later works by Galileo. Koyrй, however, rejected any contribution of the Paris condemnations to the development of modern science, and he offered a contrasting interpretation of the 13th-century texts that discussed the possible existence of empty space outside the World. The two radically different views on the progress of scientifi c knowledge represented by Duhem and Koyrй served as the point of departure for many subsequent investigations that provided modifi ed and compromise solutions to the problem of medieval contributions to the new European science.
The article focuses on the origins of anarchist individualism theory in the USA. It explores the reflections of the leading proponents of American anarchist individualism on the transformation of natural law and social contract concepts in the XIX c.
анархо-индивидуализм, США, Естественное право, Общественный договор, Просвещение, anarchist individualism, USA, natural law, social contract, Enlightenment
Drawing upon exegetical and scientific writings of Isaac Newton, his followers (W. Whiston) and opponents (Ch. Burnet), present study deals with the rise of objectivism – fundamental epistemic principle underlying the modern scientific worldview. The study is focused upon the synthesis of three epistemological principles, which shaped the science of Enlightenment: hermeneutic transparency of text in exegesis, mathematical certainty in natural science, and realistic mimesis in literary criticism. The author also examines the epistemological project, opposed to objectivistic paradigm, that puts together allegory in biblical scholarship, hypothetical method in physic and the primacy of literariness over referentiality in literary theory. Present article seeks to contribute to the genealogy of objective reality – ontological a priori of the modern scientific thought, emerged from the confusion of methodologies and discourses, characteristic to early Modern Times.