Two Decades of Post-Soviet and Post-Socialist Stateness
The collapse of the socialist system prompted the former USSR countries to “re-invent” their stateness. The paper focuses on factors that impede or smooth stateness transformations in post-Soviet countries. First, the paper examines internal and external factors of state formation in selected countries. Next, it introduces empirical research tools and empirical findings that present alternative patterns of stateness and outcomes of state formation. The paper concludes with a detailed review of certain cases that may be considered prototypes of state formation for post-Soviet countries.
Collection of papers on the early state presented at an international conference in Xi'an, China, in 2013.
In this paper, we address the issue of what types of factors are crucial for regime transformation in post-communist countries. First, we test the relative importance of structural and actor-oriented factors using a specially constructed index of democracy. Cross-country regression analysis reveals that policy-related variables have higher statistical explanatory power: presidentialism vs. parliamentarism; opposition coming to power in the first founding elections; foreign policy orientation towards the West and state capture as the most significant variables. These findings are further corroborated and expanded by qualitative analysis.
Then we look at types of the post-communist stateness as another possible explanation of differences in regime transformation results. We propose a vector measure of stateness which is based on both statistical data and expert evaluations. This measure allows developing a typology of stateness in post-communist countries which is used to assess the relationship between regime and stateness dynamics. We find that post-communist states fulfilling well a broader range of social functions are more successful in the democratic development.
The book presents a broad interdisciplinary view comcerning different aspects of civil service reforms in several countries, including Russia, in the context of transformation of role of state and character of its relations with civil society, what is taking place now in the leading coutries of the world. The main historical concepts of bureaucracy and contemporary searches new (post-Weberian) model of it are considered In the first - theoretical - part of book. The second part is devoted to inter-countries' comparative analysis of history and modern condition of civil service in Creat Britain, USA, Canada, France, Germany. The final section in each countries' paragraph is "The lessons for Russia". The subject of the third part is the Russian bureaucracy in historical and contemporary aspects. The American, English, Canadian, Rfzakh and Russian codes of civil servants' conduct applied to the monograth.
The book is devoted to important problems of contemporary political anthropology: theoretical and methodological problems of the study of genesis, functioning, and historical dynamics of early political systems are discussed. The chapters are written by the evidence from Scandianvia, the Balcans, Rus', Africa, and South Asia.
The article explains why the first attempt to introduce constitutional review in Russia failed. A simple model that predicts institutional characteristics of constitutional courts is devised based on configuration of elites that create the court and their prospects of keeping power. The case of Russia is examined against this model. I explain the existent departures from the predictions of the model by the fact that while playing with the court the elites also played other games which led them to making suboptimal decisions. Making too many of those (including making the court's powers excessively large and unspecified and nominating wrong justices) caused the project's failure.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.