Семейная политика в западноевропейских странах: модели отцовства
The article deals with comparative analysis of family policies towards fatherhood. The author analyzes how family policy in different countries is a mens friendly. Contemporary family policies in different Western European countries include a specific set of support, addressed to father after the child birth. A leave to care for the child is an example which shows that the family policy creates different models of fatherhood. In conclusion the author argues that gender-based analysis of family policy, along with the study of the position of women with children should include fathers who have certain rights and responsibilities.
The article is devoted to combination’s possibilities of the family and professional employment in the Russia of today. The article is based on the information of comprehensive survey of the living conditions of the population which was made in Russia in 2011. On the base of statistic methods of analyses, particularly construction of tree targets, preferences of Russians were revealed in timing both of professional employment and education of children. Parents can be classify on 6 groups by the time which they devote to their children, first of all it depends on sex, the amount of persons in the family, location of the family, joint or separate from children. Employment strategy differs in range of conditions and time schedule. Parents devote their time to children depending on professional employment. There is not enough flexible labor market in Russia and entrepreneurial activity is low in the small family business. Solution of demographic problems, security of birthrate and effective parenting is impossible without family policy in the direction of reconciling family and professional roles.
The article analyzes the partnership of government and institutions within social policy and public welfare. Models of social policy and types of welfare state are examined. A conclusion is made for indispensability of depicting effective and fair balance among public and state participants in regulating social needs substantiation, institutional enforcement of «rights and proxies» of social policy subjects.
The monograph analyses both the Great Depression as "the black years" of capitalist world-system and alternative ways out the greatest crisis of the capitalist economy. Authors give main attention F.D. Roosevelt's "New Deal" as the Great Reform in USA but they considers also alternative European ways out the Great Depression (fascism versus liberalism corrected). A special attention is dedicated to mutual influence of Soviet and American economies during socialist industrialisation and "New Deal".
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.