Политико-экономический анализ: теория селектората
The article presents the basic theory of selectorate as one of the trends of modern political-economic analysis of different political regimes and their replacement. It demonstrates the penetration of the principles of economic analysis into political science. Unlike other theories of autocracies and democracies, the selectorate theory can explain regime changes by endogenous forces, without attributing the utility function to the leaders or ignoring the presence of political competition..
Falling levels of electoral participation in established democracies have raised serious concern. We investigate the role of basic personal values in identifying those who do not vote. We argue that voting in specific elections offers non-voters less opportunity to affirm, protect, or attain the values they cherish than it offers to voters. We hypothesize that people who do not vote attribute less importance than voters to those values that the contesting parties actually endorse (actual value congruence) and that the parties are perceived as endorsing (perceived value congruence). Study 1 (Italian national elections of 2001, n = 1,782) confirmed the hypothesis for actual congruence between own and coalition endorsed values. Study 2 (2008 elections, n = 543) confirmed the hypothesis both for actual and perceived value congruence. In both studies, value congruence explained substantial variance in voter abstention beyond the effects of socio-demographic variables.
The article discusses the relevance of studying the attitude of residents to mega events as a tool of place marketing. According to the theory of social exchange, residents can be considered as participants in the copro- duction of mega events. However, factors that impede a direct assessment of the attitude of residents to the coproduction of mega events, presented in the final part of the article, should be taken into consideration.
One of the existing approaches to innovation is the use of existing sources in new ways. Within the framework of this article, the author proposes to use human potential, which is possessed by residents, in the preparation and organization of events aimed at the promotion of cities.
The article examines the legal status of the main participants of currency relations: residents and nonresidents, on whom the state currency regulation and control is directed; the article raises an important issue of sings identification and determination of concept currency legal relations in terms of financial and legal science, as well as identifies the legal regimes of currency operations performed by residents and non-residents. The article raises the problematic issue of enforcement in relation to accountability for delays in the repatriation of currency earnings, and gives practical recommendations for balancing the risks involved.
In Chap. 5, Aleksandra Khamadieva presents a “Development of a methodology for measuring the residents’ utility within place marketing”. Focusing on the important target group of residents, the author investigates which factors are most important for a place and how those can be measured. These questions become even more complicated in the context of interregional marketing and branding strategies, as two or more regions can unite in order to establish one strong place brand. The author therefore strives to explain the importance of researching this issue and proposes possible approaches.
The article defines the importance of studying the residents’ equity in place marketing. Several current approaches to determining the residents’ equity are highlighted. In conclusion, the approach to determining the residents’ equity in place marketing is stated.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.