Инновационное поведение сотрудников российских бизнес-организаций: теоретические и методологические основы эмпирического исследования
The article presents the framework of empirical research into individual innovative behavior in Russian business-organizations. On the basis of the analysis of contemporary world literature and the results of empirical research of social aspects of business innovations the authors put forward a hypothesis that innovation-related processes are interrelated on the micro-, mezzo-, and macro-levels. On the one hand, the innovative development of business and the creation of useful innovations result from the individual activity of the employees. On the other hand, the social macromedia is the key factor, determining the innovative efficiency not only of business organizations, but of society as a whole.
The article analyses reasons for decrease in effectiveness of prohibitive legal means for civil regulation of copyright relations. Researcher has substantiated those innovative approaches of using art works need to develop non-reprehensible legal means, methods and norms, which together constitute the inclusive mechanism for civil-law regulation of copyright relations. To build such a mechanism the system of additions and amendments to the Russian Civil Code is proposed.
This paper aims to determine the influence of various enterprise characteristics on on-the-job training. The paper focuses mainly on identifying the influence of a firm’s innovative activity, technological capacity for manufacturing and product market competition on its likelihood of having a training program and on training intensity.
The authors administered a firm-level survey to a sample of 2,000 Russian enterprises. This survey includes questions about on-the-job training and key information about the companies’ activities. Probit and ordered probit estimates are used in the statistical analyses.
The results indicate that an enterprise’s provision of training is determined largely by firm-specific factors, such as its innovative activity, technical and technological state of manufacturing and product market competition. The authors adopt two widely used measures of training: incidence and intensity. Innovative activity and the technical and technological state of manufacturing are decisive factors in explaining a firm’s provision of training, as they have a strictly positive effect on both the incidence and the intensity of training. Product market competition has a positive effect on the incidence of training and a negative effect on the intensity of training.
This paper is original because it assumes that the process of deciding whether to implement a training program at an enterprise and the corresponding proportion of employees involved in training is built on the presupposition that the training intensity decision is made in two stages. This paper is the first to present estimates of on-the-job training intensity based on data from Russian enterprises.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.