Development of Russian resource-type regions: geography vs. institutions?
The paper examines the dynamics of the level of resource dependence in the resource-type regions of Russia from 2005 to 2017. The classification of regions is based on the authors’ two-factor classification model using the share of the extractive sector in the GRP and the ratio of the extractive sector to the manufacturing industry. Exploiting the method of fuzzy classification and calculating a comprehensive assessment of resource dependence, the classification regions are classified on a scale of continuous values, which makes it possible to assess the level of resource dependence of the regions of the Russian Federation and their grouping. The dynamics of the level of resource dependence is monitored and the regions that have made transitions from one selected group to another are distinguished. The results obtained indicate that in the period under consideration there was an increase in the level of resource dependence. For most of the resource-type regions, the level of resource dependence has increased, the number of resource-type regions has grown from 22 to 27. An analysis of the case studies of individual regions shows that the policy of the federal center and the largest Russian companies, often state-owned, was in most cases more significant than the policy of regional authorities. The case of Russia, therefore, corresponds to the patterns described in the literature investigating the influence of geography and institutions on development at the subnational level: geographic factors play a decisive role in the development of regions, the role of subnational institutions is small. Differences at the subnational level in such institutional factors as the protection of property rights or regulatory efficiency are not decisive in attracting investment; priorities formed at the national level play a decisive role. The ability of regional authorities to influence the development of the region comes down mainly to the effective integration of the federal center into the projects.