The issue of gender inequality in the Arab world has been attracting public scrutiny for many years. However, the opportunity to analyze it on the basis of a large volume of valid data appeared not long ago due to the “Arab Barometer” project conducted in seven countries of the region. The data show that the youth in the Arab East is more conservative than the older generation despite a higher level of education. At the same time more educated representatives of each age group are more tolerant to the issue of gender equality. The most liberal country is Lebanon, the most conservative one is Yemen.
The subject of the article is problem situations of intercultural communication, which lie in the basis of Case-studies – specialized descriptions of real situations containing problems, which must be analyzed and solved. The authors study approaches to the design of Case-studies that are necessary for the preparation of university students for participation in intercultural communication. The novelty of these Cases is to provide information that helps to deeply analyze the reality of other cultures and, through it, to rethink the participant’s native picture of the world. Consequently, the aim of the article is to prove the role of the Case-study method in the development of intercultural communicative competence of students, which allows them to overcome the conflict of the dialogue of cultures. To achieve this goal, the following research methods were used: content analysis of verbal products of activity, questioning, survey, theoretical analysis and generalization of information received. As a result the article contains an example of a Case-study on intercultural communication issues, as well as the list of the most conflict-sensitive areas of intercultural interaction. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of intercultural communication, Case-study designers, teachers of foreign languages, authors of textbooks on foreign languages.
The article draws light on characteristics of Krasnoyarsk region’s social structure based on its empirical research conducted in 2011. The social structure of the region is represented by means of cluster analysis and is organized as the system of ten social clusters selected on the basis of selfevaluation of the socio-economic stratum, belonging to the socio-professional structure and level of education by the respondents. Professional characteristics of the clusters and the role of education in formation of the regional social structure are closely examined.
This article is devoted to the application of cross-cultural approach in training future translators to conduct a pre-translation analysis of the text in the source language. The essence of intercultural competence of an interpreter as well as its specific features are determined on the stage of pre-translation analysis of the source text. The author reveals the features and workflow of an interpreter in the process of implementing strategies of intercultural interpretation of the text. The didactic status of strategies for intercultural interpretation regarded as components of the content of the training of future translators is determined.
The subject of this article is the results of a pilot research of Japanese euphemisms conducted at Hokkaido University, Japan. Japanese euphemisms remain a low-studied layer of lexis. The aim of the article is to analyze the euphemisms used by the Japanese in such thematic fields as low intelligence, physically challenged people, ugly appearance, serious diseases, death and low social status and to define the most frequently used ways of making Japanese euphemisms.
The results of the research my be helpful for those who study Japanese language and culture and want to understand their nuances better. Also, the article may help translators find efficient ways of translating Japanese euphemisms into English.
The publication raises the question of the status and characteristics of a mediatext in the system of language training aimed at development of students’ intercultural communicative competence. The author represents the specific characteristics of mediatext as a component of media. The article discloses the classification of media texts, represents the selection criteria for language teaching purposes.
The article investigates the modern status of the childhood and the possibilities to describe it in terms of cultural-historical theory, particularly, as the crisis of childhood by analogy with D.B. Elkonin. Foreign investigations on the modern childhood and early adulthood are reviewed. The obtained data are further applied to the analysis of basic assumptions of cultural-historical theory. The description of new lifecycle – the occurring adulthood is presented. It has been showed that young people of the developed countries are not inclined to make final decisions regarding their family life and the future profession, they do not marry even when they live together and have sexual relations, they do not plan to have children and alternate short periods of study in universities with due periods of work. It was also presented that the presumption of the universality of the position of an adult and his role in the development of a child been an absolute characteristic of childhood and the condition for its current development requires a review. The results of international project “Childhood as a social phenomenon” are described. The refusal from domination of Euro-Christian model of growing up towards the recognition of the diversity of childhood models was particularly showed. These results are being described and analyzed as the basis for renunciation of the idea of singularity and universality of the development standard. Classical model of childhood is specified as insensitive to the sociocultural recognition of the value of the individual and even marginal. The conclusion is made on the necessity to reject the idea of reproduction of cultural forms as of the only form of development. Also the presumption of predetermination of sense is being discussed as something that is acquired within the process of development and in conjunction with an adult. The necessity of considering a self-generation of a meaning was specially underlined. A hypothesis on the replacement of the axial (purposeful) child development by rhizomatic development (multidirectional movement) has been suggested
The article is devoted to the overview of innovations applied to teaching translation and interpreting (T&I). The authors represent both parameters of the innovations and the main trends of modern approaches to teaching T&I.
Nowadays intercultural dialogue is regarded as one of key points in various fields of knowledge: philosophy, sociology, political science, linguistics, methods of teaching foreign languages. Despite the crisis of the idea of “interculturalism”, the interest to the dialogue of cultures is not going down. On the contrary, it is becoming stronger and stronger. The status of intercultural dialogue is changing, its role as a social and human phenomenon is being revised. These changes are taking place due to the fact that the modern nature of international cooperation and cross-cultural communication is complicated by political, social, cultural processes caused by globalization, the opposition of civilizational values. The global society faces many challenges in the process of preparing younger generations to unexpected, often conflict-prone, complicated conditions of international cooperation and communication. There is a need to find specific tools that can reduce the intensity of confrontation, to diminish the devastating effects of modern globalization shifts and deformations. The article raises the question of the application of the intercultural approach as a soft power tool in university educational environment.
This paper is dedicated to the initiation and implementation of large-scale surveys in education field at different educational and age levels. In order to determine the feasibility of such surveys and their importance for the subsequent analysis of the obtained data, the authors reviewed the concept of "evaluation" and "assessment." The analysis of existing researches allowed to submit a classification of large-scale surveys on the basis of which different school surveys and their implementation in the Russian Federation were reviewed (PISA, PIRLS, TIMMS). The design features of such surveys are not only the data collection of the test results but also the collection of the context information. Moreover such results give an oppurtunity to look at the data on the international level, the successfulness of the country education policy, the population capabilities, the gaps in education process and activities and the competencies distribution among the population. The competencies here mean a person's ability to apply his/her knowledge in a variety of (new, unknown or familiar) contexts and real-life situations. The implementation of competency-based approach in forming the national education policy, the necessity of competencies forming and development are very important components for full inclusion in education sector at the national and international levels.
This article is devoted to the study of borrowed lexis penetration in the recipient language. The author represents the methods of loan words analysis and their usage in the process of foreign-language communication. The financial and economic terminology is taken as the material of the research. We define the types of lexical borrowing and types of teaching assignments which are designed to help students acquire these terminological units.
The paper deals with the issue of conceptualizing interoceptive sensations – perceptual signals originating in the internal milieu of the body and characterizing its physiological state. Unlike many other types of perceptual phenomena, interoceptive sensations lack their own vocabulary and can only be conveyed in speech through metaphor. The paper carries out an analysis of only one group of metaphors based upon the names of natural phenomena, which falls into two subgroups: weather / climatic phenomena and natural disasters. Providing examples from contemporary literary sources, the author reveals the functions of individual metaphors and studies their potential for qualifying the sensation, measuring it, tracing its dynamics and assessing possible consequences for bodily well-being.
For decades, it has been well based on the fundamental theories, we know that peer inter-action it is a key factor for identity formation in young people. However, does this mean that the content of adolescent interactions has stayed the same for the past half a century ago and today are the same? Studies of adolescent peer interaction often struggle to access the subjects’ own meaning-making. Without such informational background, developmental theory lacks the nu-anced understanding of the subjective component of adolescent experiences across various cul-tural and socio-economic contexts. Teenagers sometimes struggle articulating what is important and unimportant within peer interactions, and what are the rules of the interactions are. Any method based on self-reporting to an adult researcher involves potential bias related to the social expectations of the surveyor or interviewer. The purpose of the research presented here is to de-velop a new instrument, a projective method of indirect access to adolescent perceptions of peer culture on terms identified by adolescents themselves. In this study, a group of 14 teenagers aged 13 to 16 were presented a 1960-s film on adolescence. They were asked to select any scenes from the film and remake them in the contemporary context. The resulting script and videos show that the content of adolescent interactions revolves around the relational boundaries, with sex, violence, and interaction with adults serving as background. Conclusions from the the study reflect sensitivity of the fundamental theories describing maturation, but at the same time the ar-ticle describes the changes in the material through which adolescents development occurs.
In this study, we analyze self-reported development experience of adolescents involved in various extracurricular activities. We surveyed a large number of students (9th grade) across several regions of the Russian Federation: St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region, Tomsk and Tomsk region, and Pskov. The total number of respondents was 3367. The self-assessment of skills and competencies we used a recently developed YES instrument (Hansen, Larson, 2005). We surveyed the students involved into a range of organized, adult-let extracurricular activities (in hobby groups, sports teams and clubs), and analyzed the obtained data using the method of multiple regression. We have established a connection between specific types of activities and the development of specific personal and interpersonal skills: adolescents involved in individual sports and martial arts believe that these activities help them to develop time management skills and goal setting; development of teamwork skills occurs for any sports and performing activities (dance, theater, etc.); these occupations also help them to acquire the social capital. Individual sports and martial arts offer the most favorable setting for development of most of skills and competencies. At the same time, any types of activities (participation in various sports, fine arts, or academic clubs) assist the youth in building their identities. While all types of extracurricular activities have a positive impact on the development of personality and interpersonal skills, each type of activity can be characterized by its own unique profile.
Since the announcement of the pivot to Asia, enough time has passed to sum up the results and to evaluate the existing achievements and failures of Russia’s new policy. However, despite some breakthrough, many issues remain open. Most of the government’s attempts in this area have not led to any fundamental changes, as the measures taken are often unsystematic and inconsistent. The majority of the actions are reactive, taken after the challenges have emerged. Therefore, further development of the region requires some more dynamic actions and larger strategy, where the central place belongs to Russian Far East and Siberia. Thus, our task is to determine the content of the «pivot to Asia» policy, its possible directions and the main format
The article discusses the results of the study of the management decision-making styles of secondary school principals, which was held in 2014 in eight regions of the Russian Federation (one region of each federal district) basing on the methodology of A. Rowe. The objective of the study was to assess the Russian principals’ reform potential, which in the present conditions, according to the authors, is based on the ability to build a partnership with teachers in decision-making and to preserve the ability to solve problems in a situation of uncertainty, which was so characteristic of the era of change. Based on the findings of the research on the management decision-making styles, comparison of the two reforms in the recent history of Russian education was made: the financial reform that includes certain financial freedom for schools willing to switch to a form of the autonomous institution, and the substantial reform that offers schools to claim to a lyceum and gymnasium status with wider opportunities to organize the educational process. The comparison reveals that the substantial reform has attracted a greater number of principals-reformers than the financial one, which characterizes a formal and directive side of the latter.
The article concerns the research of functional peculiarities of multilingual religious discourse in its diachronic aspect. The author considers the religious discourse as a means that conveys a complex of meanings of a sacral text regarding the mentality, religious experience and objective reality of the people speaking a certain language in a certain historic period, the discourse being consistently reproduced in time and space. Multilingual sacral texts are a significant part of the religious discourse. Their contrastive analysis is worthwhile only when historical, chronological, sociocultural and situational factors which have some impact on the meaning of a sacral text are taken into consideration, a sacral text being an object for translation. Since translators were traditionally expected to observe the compulsory rules of preserving the meaning and structure of the source text, their translations either distorted the text meaning or were not fully accurate in the meaning conveyed.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the social competitiveness of young people in the context of their ideas about their socio-cultural environment. The socio-cultural environment in the study is represented by the respondents’ perceptions about the predominance of a certain type of society at three levels: Russia as a whole, the region, the enterprise (educational institution). The social competitiveness of young people has only scarcely been studied by sociologists. In the article, this phenomenon is seen as the ability of social actors to achieve their goals in a society in the conditions of competition with other people. The empirical basis of this research is a representative survey, conducted in 2016 in the Krasnoyarsk Territory using formalized interviews among 1000 respondents. The article shows that the most competitive youth are those who perceive their socio-cultural macro environment (Russian society) as either pre-industrial, feudal or industrial, capitalistic one. It is established that there are two opposing in their meaning forms of the moral and value environment of the young people in the region, each of which ensures the high social competitiveness of a certain part of the youth. In particular, the socio-cultural environment of the competitiveness of young people corresponds to the contemporary state of Russian society. On the contrary, many adult actors continue to live in the socio-cultural context of the past era. It is concluded that the socio-cultural environment of the activity is specific for various social actors, and the identification of mechanisms of determination of social success is a promising area for further research.
The article is devoted to the study of socio-economic, socio-demographic and socio-cultural characteristics of the economically active educated population of the regions of Siberian Federal District. The object of the study is residents of Siberia, who have high human capital and prospect of acting as a social support for contemporary modernization of their regions. Based on the analysis of official statistics and surveys of the population in the regions of Siberia, an assessment of the educational potential of internal migration and socio-cultural characteristics of potential agents of modernization in the population of these territories is made.