Изображения как субституты: от Гомбриха до визуальных исследований
This article is devoted to reconstruction, analysis and contextualization of a relatively little-known issue in history of interdisciplinary debates on the pictorial and the visual. According to some theories, pictorial representation is described through the model where the image substitutes its subject. It turns out that this idea, which at first glance seems to be nothing more than a convenient explanatory metaphor, contains a number of unexpected philosophical implications and directions for further development of this same idea. This is due to the fact that the concept of substitution allows one to step back from the usual idea of representation viewed as a similarity or a reference. Thus, the art historian Ernst Gombrich came to the methodologically productive idea of dominance of the visual function over form, using substitution as the framework of a polemic against more traditional theories of images. For his part, the analytical philosopher Kendall Walton extended Gombrich's observations to the original theory of art, in which representation is explained through the concepts of fiction, imagination and participation; in turn, the philosopher of perception Alva Noë proposed a concept that clarifies relationships between visual substitution, perceptual experience, and human cognitive abilities. This article also demonstrates that the concept of substitution is gaining special theoretical relevance due to its thematic proximity to the studies of recents decades, including those within the framework of visual studies, image theory and Bildwissenschaft. The author considers the most prominent examples of this proximity: discussions on the problems of pictorial presence, affective and irrational reactions to images, as well as Horst Bredekamp's concept, in which substitution is treated as one of the forms of image acts. It is demonstrated that the concept of visual representation as substitution turns out to be a rather productive theoretical tool that makes it possible to consider the factors, which are rarely mentioned side by side, that can be significant for the studies of visual imagery. The paper also reveals the features of considered account due to which it may be applied as complementary to other theories of depiction.