Language contacts have been extensively studied linguistically and sociolinguistically. This paper argues that cross-cultural analysis of language transfer can also prove useful in contact linguistics. One of the latest borrowings from English into Russian, the semantic calque vyzov vyzovy (‘challenge/challenges’) used often in the cliche´ ugrozy i vyzovy (‘threats and hallenges’), makes certain shifts in the Russian world view traceable. Challenge, a key word in English, is untranslatable into Russian and the trite Russian translation equivalent for challenge – problema (‘problem’) reveals important differences between the two cultures: the Anglophone (especially, American) linguaculture, whose dominant values are individual success and activity, competitiveness, positive thinking, sense of adventure, etc., perceives difficulties as ‘‘stimuli’’ and conceptualizes them in terms of challenges; contrary to this, the Russian linguaculture, which is, if compared with the Western cultures, ‘‘being-oriented,’’ ‘‘relationship-oriented,’’ ‘passive’’ and ‘‘pessimistic,’’ encourages the discussion of difficulties in terms of problems. The borrowing of the concept challenge by extending the meaning of vyzov registers a shift of the Russian value system in the direction of increased agentivity, assertiveness, positivism, competitiveness, etc. Such borrowings are ‘‘challenges’’ rather than ‘‘threats’’ to the Russian language and culture and they call for a more in-depth linguacultural analysis of English–Russian interactions.
We attempt to describe the peculiarities of studying English neologisms and nonce words by means of a new research technique, offerd by modern information and communication technologies - open online dictionaries. We highlight debatable aspects of using these sources of linguistic data, including theoretical and practical issues of analyzing new words.
The article covers different variants of language interaction in the modern world – from code-switching to borrowings – resulting from the language contacts (bilingual and multilingual) and reflecting sociocultural changes during the globalization period. Forms and mechanisms for interaction of the Russian and German languages and the formation of sociocultural identity in a multicultural society are analyzed through the example of sociolinguistic situation of the Russian speaking diaspora in Germany.
The author examines the problems connected with a too broad use of the term “law” in the contemporary language. Such discourse about law which has no clear limits is defined as Novdroit. This narrative destroys the language used by the lawyers and introduces a new ideology instead. Under the guise of political correctness this ideology perverts the original sense of the old words. Studying the polysemanticism of the term “law” in the contemporary discussions, the author draws that the ambivalence of “law” can easily be used in the political purposes to legitimate the existing authorities and their rules.