Динамика «человеческого капитала» в сельских поселениях России: проблемы сохранения и развития
This article identifies the main theoretical and methodological approaches for defining
and researching the human capital. Following the scientific tendencies, the author distinguishes
such structural elements of the human capital as the health capital, the cultural capital, the capital of
education, the intellectual capital, the informational capital and the communicational capital. Based
on the analysis of the official statistical data provided by the Federal State Statistics Service of Russia
and the secondary mathematical analysis of the RLMS-HSE data for the 1994–2019 period the author
makes several conclusions about the changes of the human capital in rural settlements.
The structure of martial relationships of the population of rural areas did not undergo any major
changes, however the number of residents who were never married or are currently divorced has
insignificantly increased. There is also a tendency of the increase in the numbers of families with two
children and the reduction of the large families In 1998 the number of the officially employed residents
of the rural areas has reached its lowest point, up until 2010 the figures have been increasing, since
2010 there was a tendency of the decrease of the amount of jobs for the rural population. From 2000
to 2019 the practices of cattle breeding, poultry rearing and fish farming have reduced significantly,
so as growing anything on the own’s property for sale or exchange between the residents of the rural
area. The author comes to the conclusion that at the moment the residents of the rural areas are almost
entirely ousted by the agricultural holdings and large commercial farms from the market relations and
since are unable to make additional profit of their households.
Despite the reduction of the number of jobs in the rural area as well as the reduction of the
livestock breeding and crop cultivation practices according to the analysis of the empirical data, we
can claim that during the 1994–2019 period there is a strong tendency of the raise of the assessment
of the material status of the residents of the rural areas. Following the 2000–2019 period dynamics we
can also see the growing tendency of the increase of the level of satisfaction of one’s wealth. Also, the
1994–2019 period shows the stable tendency of the raise of the assessment of one’s legal status by the
residents of the rural areas.
The author comes to the conclusion that the human capital of the rural area during the 1994–2019
period has undergone several changes because of the reduction of available jobs, changes of the forms
of work and working relationship, the loss of specific work practices and the emergence of the new
ones. There is also an active development of digital competence between the residents of the rural areas.