The paper focuses on the russian poor. Based on the fact revealed in previous studies that severe chronic poverty is characterized by concomitant psycho-emotional deprivation, the author focuses not only on monetary poverty (using the relative income-based approach to group allocation for this purpose), but also subjective one (distinguished through non-monetary indicators). Based on the research database of the The Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2018), the author comes to the conclusion that the most negative perception of the position in society is not a characteristic of the financially poorest Russians, i.e. the focus of social tension is not concentrated in the zone of deep monetary poverty. While objective (monetary) deep poverty is formed as a result of high dependent burdens and failures of local labor markets, deep subjective poverty is dictated by different reasons - the inaccessibility of the necessary medical support for pensioners with serious health problems, the presence of relatives in the household who are addicted to bad habits, precarious nature of the occupied employment positions. The delimitation of groups and the varying nature of the factors of their formation leads the author to the conclusion that identifying the recipients of social policy solely on the basis of information about the financial situation of households does not allow reaching the part of the poor population where a hotbed of social tension is forming. Based on the identified characteristics of groups, as well as the requests of their representatives for certain measures of social policy, the article proposes a number of measures to reduce the severity of objective and subjective poverty
The article shows that the drop in nominal incomes of the population in the last two years has come to a stop, although their real growth is seen only in a relatively narrow segment of the population, mainly representatives of households without dependents. This situation is reflected in the public consciousness. Self-assessments of their material situation by Russians, having improved markedly after the end of the economic crisis, remain unchanged in the last two years, and the number of those who consider their material situation to be poor or deteriorating is still significantly greater than the number of those who consider it good or improving. At the same time, although the standard of living of the majority of Russians decreased compared to the pre-crisis period, this decrease has not been catastrophic, which largely mitigates negative perception of their situation by the population. The article also demonstrates that the living standards of Russians in the so-called "Putin era" have changed qualitatively: real incomes have increased dramatically, the ownership of durable goods in households has largely expanded (including the appearance of cars and different gadgets), and the material environment, with which Russians constantly deal with in their daily lives, has become much more diverse and complex. These changes were accompanied by improvements in the living conditions of Russians and, at the same time, the transformation of credit load into a norm of living. At the same time, process of "un-peasantness" of the Russian village has taken place, which had not only positive effect (in particular, reduced workload in the subsidiary farms), but also negative (for example, a decrease in the "safety margin" for rural residents) consequences. These changes are so large that they will lead to an essential transformation of the entire Russian society.
The paper shows the connection of the normative-value system of Russians with the existing type of Russian society. On a large empirical data estimated specificity and stage of sociocultural modernization experienced by contemporary Russian society .
This article analyzes in-depth changes connected with universities turning into corporations in the context of institutional analysis. The research has been conducted in the case-study format, and the respondents included students, post-graduates and young scientists of research specializations at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI. The authors put forward three hypotheses: about possible noncompliance of the students’ values with university ones; about demotivation of third-year students due to absence of individual study correction and lack of confidence in the future after the end of studies as the main reason for demotivation. In the course of studying the peculiarities of motivational characteristics of students and post-graduates with the help of validated methods “Life-purpose orientations” (D.A. Leontiev) and “Sources of motivation” (J. Barbuto and R. Scholl), it was found that third year students and Master degree students are demotivated with regard to studies in comparison with first-year students. This is confirmed by high instrumental motivation and low results at the subscale “Goals in Life” in these subgroups of respondents. It was found that demotivation was connected with increasing anxiety about the future, which is conditioned by practically linear correlation between subscale “Goals in Life” and an integral indicator “Sense of purpose in Life”. In its turn, the level of postgraduates’ expectations exceeds the possible remuneration level. The authors see the resolution of these problems in the development of socio-cultural environment of the university that supports cognitive motivation and creative potential of personality, and also in the system of efficient counseling to support the personality sense-forming structures of students and postgraduates, especially during formation of accelerated development groups.
The paper aims to study the heterogeneity of the middle classes in the new Russia. Drawing from the monitoring survey data collected by the Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, 2015 and 2018, the author employed Bayesian latent class analysis to detect Russian middle class and its main subgroups. In 2015 and 2018 it counted 58% and 61% of the population, respectively. Precarization of the middle is occurring in the lower stratum of the middle class, which comprises up to two-thirds of the middle class. The current paper gives a more optimistic view on the estimated of the relative share of the middle class in Russian society, though it was documented that precarious zone of the middle class expanded between 2015 and 2018. The precariousness of the middle class is revealed in job-related risks, such as low-paid contracts, labour right abuses and disadvantaged working conditions.
For more than 30 years, Russia has been developing “territorial public self-government” – the
process of self-organization of citizens at the local level (TOS in Russian). The article considers the
development of TOS as a tool for involvement and participation of citizens in local self-government
(LSG). In Russia at the beginning of 2020, there were more than 33 thousand TOS, half of them in
rural areas. It is a slow transformation of TOS activities (from the distribution of humanitarian aid in the
1990s) before participating in National projects after 2018), as well as changing attitudes towards TOS
(from lack of recognition and support – to cooperation and allocation of serious funds, up to presidential
grants). On the basis of long-term included observation, positive social practices that are implemented in
rural settlements, features of the daily activities of rural TOS, features of rural life, including the nature
of development and individual consumption of municipal resources, environmental problems and the
seizure of agricultural land and pastures are described. Rural TOS are forced to do more practical things,
their projects are more labor-intensive, and the contribution of the residents themselves is more tangible
and visible (engineering infrastructure, roads and sidewalks, gasification, electricity and street lighting,
garbage collection, and other cultural and leisure projects): a different scale than in the city, but much
greater diversity, involvement and initiative of the residents themselves. The positive experience of the
TOS of Kameshkovsky rural settlement of the Vladimir region and Novopavlovsky rural settlement of
the Krasnodar territory is considered. Numerous social practices are described, as well as the problems
encountered in connection with the emergence of municipal districts.
This article analyzes the behavior of the poor in the family, including activities related to children and their future. It demonstrates the main features of poor families as the environment of population reproduction accompanied by a low activity of investing in its human capital.