Energy of Electrons Emitted as a Result of Separation of Surfaces
Experiments indicating acceleration of charged particles as a result of separation of solid surfaces are analyzed. As a possible mechanism of such acceleration, generation of surface charge on the separated surfaces of a cleaved ionic crystal is considered. The maximum electric field generated due to the charging of the separated surfaces and the energy of electrons accelerated in such a field are estimated. It is shown that, for the maximum attainable electric field, conditions are created for the generation of runaway electrons that, even at atmospheric pressure, electrons are accelerated to high energies, not experiencing collisions with gas particles.
The fresh surfaces formation provided by materials destruction or cleavage often leads to surfaces charging and strong electric fields generation. These fields can create the high energy electrons beams and Bremsstrahlung radiation. For example the destruction of quartz and granite is accomplished by low intensity relativistic electron fluxes creation. However the adhesive tapes peeling is accomplished by significantly more intensive electron beams creation. These beams can provide hard irradiation of skin and other layers of biological tissues during the adhesive tapes separation. We will estimate this irradiation using the generalized diffusion model for non-relativistic electrons.
A vocationally-oriented course on Physics with medico-biological direction is proposed in this book. The matters of application of physical methods for substances investigation are considered here in detail.
The book may ne helpful for students of medical and pharmaceutical institutes of higher education and colleges, chemical, biological and pharmaceutical faculties of universities, as well as for students of core classes and teachers of medico-biological specialties.
We have reviewed the basic results in the radiation-induced conductivity and the bulk charging of polymers obtained by our group during the past 30 years, which are mostly unknown in the West. Special attention is given to a new experimental technique extensively used in our investigations based on an electron-gun technology allowing combined induced conductivity and carrier mobility measurements. Quasi-band and hopping theories of the carrier transport are critically discussed.
Simulation of electron, ion and metastable excited atom motion and interactions in a low-current discharge between the flat electrodes of a gas- discharge device in argon-mercury mixture is fulfilled. Also influence of gas temperature on both densities and fluxes of particles has been investigated. Distributions of the particle densities along the discharge gap under different mixture temperatures are obtained. It has been demonstrated that the principal mechanism of mercury ion generation was the Penning ionization of mercury atoms by argon metastables, which contribution grows sharply with the mixture temperature due to mercury density increase. Calculations showed that both mercury and argon ion flow densities near the cathode where of the same order already under the relative mercury content of about 10-4 corresponding at the argon pressure 103 Pa to the mixture temperature 30 C. Because the mean path length of a mercury ion in the mixture between the resonant charge exchanges on parent gas atoms is much more than that of an argon ion, the energies of mercury ions exceed considerably the energies of argon ions, and they make the main contribution to the physical electrode sputtering. which reduces the service time of the gas- discharge device.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.