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Article

СПЕЦИФИКА ТЕОРИИ СПРАВЕДЛИВОСТИ И ПРОБЛЕМА ЕЕ ПРИМЕНИМОСТИ В РОССИИ

Человек. 2021. Т. 32. № 3. С. 76-87.

The theory of justice by John Rawls belongs to the set of “local”
theories in ethics. These theories constitute a middle ground between
strong ethical theories and the so-called “anti-theories”. The local theories
do not possess many specific features of the grand theories, but also are
lacking many of the drawbacks, for which they are attacked by the “antitheorists”.
These theories are closely related to the social choice theories
and tackle the problems of social development in liberal societies. Recently
the local theories gained significant impetus in the liberal states for tackling
concrete ethical problems. At the same time, these theories have certain
limitations. These theories are of limited universalizability. The theory
of Rawls is applicable only to liberal society and only for free and equal
agents, capable of cooperative strategy. These theories should be regarded
as further development and continuation of social choice theories. The social
choice theories are striving for ethics the same as ethics is striving for social
choice theory. It is due to this reason in particular that the theory of Rawls
is inapplicable to Russia. Russia, according to Rawlsian classification, is a
hierarchical society, and because of that, it cannot draw from Rawlsian theory
of justice. The problem, which theory better suits Russian development,
remains open. Presumably, it must be some kind of strong theory.