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Regular version of the site

Article

Molecular Mechanisms of Oncogenesis through the Lens of Nucleosomes and Histones

Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2021. Vol. 125. No. 16. P. 3963-3976.
Espiritu D., Gribkova A., Gupta S., Shaytan A., Panchenko A.

At the cellular level, cancer is the disease of both the
genome and the epigenome, and the interplay between genetic
mutations and epigenetic states may occur at the level of
elementary chromatin units, the nucleosomes. They are formed
by a segment of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histone
proteins. In this review, we survey various mechanisms of cancer
etiology and progression mediated by histones and nucleosomes.
In particular, we discuss the effects of mutations in histones,
changes in their expression and slicing on epigenetic dysregulation
and carcinogenesis. The links between cancer phenotypes and
differential expression of histone variants and isoforms are
summarized. Finally, we discourse the geometric and steric effects
of DNA compaction in nucleosomes on DNA mutation rate,
interactions with transcription factors, including pioneer transcription factors, and prospects of cancer cells’ genome and epigenome editing.