Assessment of Vocational Skills and Learning Outcomes in VET: A Review of International Initiatives
There is a growing need for valid tools for assessing skills and certifying qualifications in the context of increasing labour migration and mobility. Due to the growing internationalization of business activities, companies are interested in standardized skills assessments that ensure valid and comparable ratings of job applicants and employees. At the same time, assessment of professional or vocational skills, which are highly domain-specific and numerous, remains challenging, especially in terms of comparability. Therefore, objective skills assessment tops the list of challenges faced by national VET systems.
This paper presents an overview of practices and tools for assessing vocational skills and VET learning outcomes, and covers the following issues: a) current practices and challenges in measuring vocational skills and learning outcomes in VET; b) initiatives for internationally comparable assessment of vocational skills, including PISA-VET and WorldSkills competitions; c) national initiatives for assessment of VET learning outcomes in the cases of Germany and Russia; d) labor market-and industry-driven initiatives in skills assessment for job seekers and qualification assurance. This paper contributes to the literature on skills assessment by providing a more comprehensive picture of approaches to skills assessments, including well-established ones and emerging initiatives outside the field of measuring learning outcomes in education.
The main goal of the secondary vocational education system is to fulfill the staffing needs of the Russian economy. The only way that we can effectively deliver on this objective is by ensuring there is a well-coordinated and stable system in place that allows vocational schools to cooperate with businesses. This article reviews how this cooperative relationship has changed over time, from the Soviet centrally planned model to the advent of market mechanisms. The authors pay particular attention to the specific features that distinguish the Russian labor market and the nature of youth employment in Russia, and they also examine the particular means and models whereby the vocational education system is able to “read signals” that emanate from the labor market and to quickly respond to these signals.
The article’s findings may be of interest to administrators who work in the secondary vocational education system, experts as well as to anyone who takes an interest in the relationship between the secondary vocational educational system and the labor market.
The report presents the state of the international discussion of professional skills assessment and approaches to the measurement of specific human capital. There are analyzed both academic papers and influential expert reports, as well as the field of practical solutions to professional skills measurement. The report reviews traditional and emerging digital approaches to professional skills assessment, highlighting a brand new approach — tracking professional competencies, which can be promising in responding to the labor productivity challenge. The report concludes with the Russian experience in assessing professional skills, documents new practices, and discusses the prospects. This report is aimed at researchers and education practitioners, specialists in the labor market and human resource management, and all those interested in skills assessment and competence development.
The paper proposed approaches how to implement effective contract with teachers in vocational education and training organizations in modern conditions. It includes ideas how to distribute the incentive part of education organization’s budget and how to determine performance indicators. The article is based on the results of the analysis of normative-legal acts of the federal and regional governments and educational organizations, on the results of monitoring statistics, as well as on the results of interviews with heads of colleges and focus groups with teachers.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.