Измерение базовой математической грамотности в начальной школе
Measuring mathematical literacy is not easy as this construct is multicomponent and tasks often involve a lot of reading. As a rule, intended users of measurement results want information about the overall level of respondents’ mathematical literacy as well as its specific components. According to educational and psychological testing standards, reporting overall scores together with subscores simultaneously requires additional psychometric evaluation to provide evidence for the validity of all scores reported. A study performed shows that PROGRESS-ML, a test measuring basic mathematical literacy in elementary school pupils, can be used as a one-dimensional measure, allowing overall test scores to be reported. Meanwhile, reading skills do not contribute significantly to the likelihood of item response, and subscores can be reported as complementary to the total score.
This paper describes the bunch of research necessary for the justified simultaneous use of general test scores and specific scores. We also provide an exemplary study using computerized adaptive test PROGRESS-ML, which measures basic mathematical literacy in the third grade.
The report poses the problem of assessing and forming universal competencies in higher education — complex constructs that are associated with a person’s success in various professional and life areas (critical thinking, creativity, communication, digital literacy, etc.). We analyze the experience that the global educational community has accumulated in the field of assessing these competencies, and we consider Evidence-Centered Design as the most advanced approach to the assessment of universal competencies today. The problem of assessing universal competencies is directly related to the issues of their development and implementation in the educational process. We demonstrate the difficulties and challenges that the community faces when introducing universal competencies into the educational process using the example of critical thinking. The report concludes with a section on the opportunities offered by the assessment of universal competencies to universities
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.