What factors explain the much higher diabetes prevalence in Russia compared with Norway? Major sex differences in the contribution of adiposity.
Introduction Compared with many other countries
Russia has a high prevalence of diabetes in men and
women. However, contrary to what is found in most other
populations, the risk is greater among women than men.
The reasons for this are unclear.
Research design and methods Prevalence and risk
factors for diabetes at ages 40–69 years were compared
in two population-based
studies: Know Your Heart (KYH)
(Russia, 2015–2018, n=4121) and the seventh wave of the
Tromsø Study (Tromsø 7) (Norway, 2015–2016, n=17 649).
Diabetes was defined by the level of glycated hemoglobin
diabetes and/or diabetes medication
use. Marginal structural models were used to estimate the
role of key risk factors for diabetes in differences between
prevalence of diabetes was
higher in KYH compared with Tromsø 7 in men (11.6%
vs 6.2%) and in women (13.2% vs 4.3%). Age-adjusted
ORs for diabetes in KYH compared with Tromsø 7 were
2.01 (95% CI 1.68 to 2.40) for men and 3.66 (95% CI
3.13 to 4.26) for women. Adiposity (body mass index
and waist circumference) explained none of this effect
for men but explained 46.0% (39.6, 53.8) for women.
Addition of smoking and C reactive protein, as further
mediators, slightly increased the percentage explained of
the difference between studies to 55.5% (46.5, 66.0) for
women but only to 9.9% (−0.6, 20.8) for men.
Conclusions Adiposity is a key modifiable risk factor
that appears to explain half of the almost threefold higher
female prevalence of diabetes in Russia compared with
Norway, but none of the twofold male difference.
The sex differences of the full amplitude of the spectrum (PAS) of EEG of a wide frequency range of 56 th are investigated- lovek (27 men and 29 women) in the ontogenetic range from 3 to 70 years. Used the 21-channel electroencephalo- graph " Neuron-Spectrum-4 / VP "(Neurosoft, "10-20" by Jasper). Estimation of averaged values of PAS in 21 leads without taking into account individual rhythms (and thus, without taking into account the level of cerebral generation of rhythms), intersex differences are given- no neurodynamic parameter was detected. Taking into account the individual rhythms of EEG (beta-high-frequency, beta- low-frequency, alpha -, theta -, Delta -) there is a distinct tendency to higher absolute values INCREASE of EEG rhythms in men compared to women. In the extreme values of the studied EEG frequency spectrum (high-frequency beta-and slow Delta-rhythm) this trend acquired a reliable character (p<0.05) mainly in the posterior-temporal and Antero-frontal leads. Stable negative correlations (p<0.05) between
The subcortical-cortical integration with their relatively small genetic and phenotypic variation (Shepovalnikov, Tsitseroshin, 2007) have a sexual dimorphism, studied in ontogenesis in less detailed compared to the inner – and interhemispheric cortical zones interactions (Panasevizch, 2010). In this regard the general differences research of the most informative EEG-parameters – the full amplitude spectrum (FAS) a wide frequency range of 50 persons (27 males and 23 – female) in a singular ontogenetic range from 3 to 70 years was hold. The 21-channel electroencephalograph "Neiron-Spektr-4/VP" company Neirosoft was used ("10-20" by Jasper, the reference electrodes were placed on the ear lobes). Evaluating the average values PAS in 21 leads without considering the individual rhythms, intersexual differences this neurodynamic parameter is not found. Taking in consideration the separate EEG-rhythms (beta- high-frequency, low-frequency beta, alpha, theta, delta) revealed that sex differences are unknown, and in some cases – quite substantial. A priori the supposition of determined generalization level role, different for different EEG-rhythms (Kuksova, 2009) in gender differentiation formation of this kind aroused. There is the distinct tendency to the higher absolute values PAS men EEG-rhythms than women in this paper. In extreme values of the studied EEG frequency spectrum (high-beta, and delta-slow rhythm), this trend has gained a reliable character (P <0.05) mainly in the posterior temporal and anterior-frontal leads. Stable negative correlation (P <0.05) between the absolute values of the different FAS EEG rhythms and the age of the subjects, expressed not in years, but in months, showed a gradual decrease in the value of this indicator as they mature and aging in the studied ontogenetic series. The regularity prevailed in the direction of convexital surface to a depth of (beta → alpha → theta→ delta), which coincided with the data obtained in our laboratory (Vodolazhskaya, 2009.2010). In males this pattern manifested itself more clearly than in females. The male number of effective (P <0.05) leads in the spectrum was distributed as follows: "3 (beta) → 13 (alpha) → 21 (theta) → 21 (delta), and women as foll ows:" 4 (beta) → 4 (alpha) → 17 (theta) → 18 (delta). This shows that the most striking intersexual differences reported with respect to FAS basic rhythm of EEG. The fall of this magnitude neurodynamic in ontogeny from three to seventy years of age is more pronounced in men than in women, which probably compensated for initially more expressions of male status of the full amplitude electroencephalographic rhythm compared with women.
Evidence for cross-cultural patterns of sexual differences in color preferences raised the question of whether these preferences are determined by universal principles. To address this question, we investigated most- and least-favorite color choices in a nonindustrialized community, the Hadza that has an egalitarian hunter-gatherer culture, fundamentally different from those previously investigated. We also compared color preference patterns in the Hadza with published data from Poland and Papua. Our results show that Hadza have very different color preferences than Polish and Papuan Yali respondents. Unlike many industrialized and nonindustrialized cultures, Hadza color preferences are practically the same for women and men. These observations question the idea of universal differences of color preferences between sexes and raise important questions about the determinants of color preferences.
The present study examined changes in brain functioning during voluntary visual task switching in healthy adult men and women. One hundred and forty subjects between 20 and 65 years old (69 men) participated in the study. In the fMRI task, the participants had to shift their attention between two objectives (classifying figures according to their form or number). Volumes of gray and white matter throughout the brain and in selected areas were calculated using VBM (voxel-based morphometry) analysis. The results of fMRI study revealed that in subjects of different age and sex task switching is carried out by bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal area and lateral occipital gyrus. It was also revealed that there is a transition from local to diffuse activation occurring with age. When comparing the two young groups (aged 20 to 30) we found that men had significantly higher activation in prefrontal cortex bilaterally, right parietal lobe and insula and moreover they had activations in supplementary motor area which were not observed in women. We did not found any significant differences between groups of elderly men and women (aged 51 to 65). The research found no significant correlations between BOLD-signal and age for the women between 20 to 40 years of age and for the men between 20 and 55 years of age. With further increase of age in both groups we found a consequent increase in the number of brain areas which are activated. VBM analysis revealed significant decrease in the volumes of gray, but not white, matter with age. However, no significant correlations with age and BOLD-signal were found between changes in the volumes of gray matter throughout the brain and in selected areas.
In this exploratory study, we examined several interethnic ideologies held by individuals (assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and polyculturalism) from a social ecological perspective. We examined moderation effects of neighborhood ethnic density (ED) on relationships between interethnic ideologies and intergroup bias towards various minority ethnic groups in the Russian context. Intergroup bias was assessed as a composite score of bias toward four ethnic groups who have different cultural distances from the Russian mainstream population: Chechens, Belarusians, Uzbeks, and Chinese. We obtained a gender balanced sample of ethnic Russians from the Central Federal District of Russia (N = 359) comprising of 47% women and 53% men. The measures were used in a Russian translation by an adaptation using the back-translation and cognitive interviews. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationships. The results showed that high perceived neighborhood non-Russian ED weakened negative relations between intergroup bias and ideologies that purportedly accept cultural diversity (multiculturalism and polyculturalism). On the other hand, for interethnic ideologies those purportedly reject cultural diversity, high perceived neighborhood non-Russian ED weakened the positive relations between intergroup bias and assimilation and strengthened the negative relations between intergroup bias and colorblindness. The pattern of results suggests that the relationship between attitudes and intergroup bias may change based on the perceived ethnic composition of the local area and frequency of contacts. Although our findings are relatively novel they support the emerging view that attitudes and intergroup relations need to be studied from a social ecological context.
The present paper discusses perspectives of Activity Theory (AT) in the context of contemporary globalizing world, describing which we refer to the notion “De-structuralized modernity” (Sorokin & Froumin, 2020). Radical changes in everyday life challenge social sciences and humanities. Approaches are in demand, which have the potential to comprehend the changing human étant and éntre. We argue that Activity Theory has the potential to face these challenges. Leontiev’s AT grounds on the idea of qualitatively new mental features arising to deal with novel environmental challenges, which is much in line with J.M. Baldwin reasoning on evolution. AT also offers a method to prognosis the upcoming neoplasms. In the same time, applying classics of AT to the current reality, “De-structuralized modernity”, entails the need for new theoretical elaborations of the latter, stemming from the radical transformation of the relations between individual and socio-cultural environments. A unique societal context emerges on the global level, which, on the one hand, requires individual to adapt constantly to changing socio-cultural reality, and, on the other hand, dramatically expands his/her potential for proactive actorhood transforming surrounding structures. We argue that the major and novel challenge for the individual is the task of maintaining the integrity and coherence of the a) Self-identity and b) system of links in and with the socio-cultural environment - in their dynamics and unity. The notion of “culture” has particular relevance and importance in this context because it allows grasping simultaneously two dimensions in their dynamic dialectical interrelations. First, the “internal” (“subjective”, “in the minds”) and “external” (“objective”, material and institutional environment) realities. Second, individual (“micro”) and societal (“macro”) scales of human activities. Discussing the ways to understand these dynamics, we dispute the popular “constitutive view” on personality and refer to the concept of the “ontological shift” (Mironenko & Sorokin, 2018). We also highlight how technological advancements change and “expand” human nature making it capable to deal with the outlined new tasks.
The article deals with the ways Russian authorities have constructed the social problem of HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in Russia. The statistical construction of HIV/AIDS includes data indicating the significant rise of HIV prevalence in Russia since 2000. The study focuses on what and how Russian authorities speak about HIV/AIDS, while there are official data on the rapid spread of the virus in the country. The work is based on a discourse analysis of the authorities’ rhetoric about HIV/AIDS. During his first presidential terms, Vladimir Putin constructed HIV/AIDS not as an epidemic in the country, but as a “global problem,” representing Russia as a participant in international efforts to combat AIDS. The president problematized the HIV spread through the rhetoric of endangerment but without its crucial term “epidemic,” while at the same time de-problematized HIV in Russia by the strategy of naturalizing (“this is a problem that all countries face”). The Russian authorities appealed to traditional moral values and spoke about marginal or risk groups, rather than risk practices. After the deterioration of relations with Western countries since 2007, the Russian president excluded HIV/AIDS problem from his public agenda, despite the existence of the data on steep HIV growth in Russia. The Russian president’s traditionalism, de-problematization, and silence concerning HIV/AIDS lead to the absence of the HIV/AIDS issues in media agenda, the agenda of local authorities, and consequently the personal agendas of Russian citizens. The consequences are ignorance, fears, stigmatization of people living with HIV, semi-legal status of needle, and syringe exchange programs for intravenous drug users, low antiretroviral therapy coverage, and the continuing HIV epidemic.