Zoo-Fascism, Russia: To Hell with Equality and Ownerless Dogs
What does it mean to call something fascist, and what consequences does such righteous denouncement engender?
In the focus of this article is one of the main directions of topical philosophy – posthu-manism. The author distinguishes it from the concept of «transhumanism» and traces its origin, development and current state. If posthumanism was originally concerned with cul-ture (the concept of Ihab Hassan’s criticism), then later he adressed a new ontology. At this point posthumanism approaches such areas of modern philosophy and social theory as ac-tor-network theory and object-oriented ontology. From the last two posthumanism differs in not being satisfied only with the new ontology, which proposes to move away from the tra-ditional anthropocentric concepts such as «man» and turn to «individuals», and offers an ethical and political program (Donna Haraway, Rosi Braidotti). The author comes to the conclu-sion that posthumanism is an alternative to cultural postmodernism, which excluded nature from the object of its attention. Posthumanists insist that the concepts of culture and nature should be reconsidered. In this sense, posthumanism can be considered as one of the versions of «postmod-ernism». However, many researchers in the XXI century, referring to posthumanism, describe it directly through the products of popular culture, thereby weakening the program of posthuman-ism. But, despite this, the emphasis on the era of «anthropocene» allows posthumanism to aban-don postmodern as a historical category, that is involved exactly in culture, and move to the dis-cussion of completely new topics such as ecology, earth, etc.
The article is intended to introduce the reader to the historical and polemical contexts of the seminal essay “Famine, Affluence and Morality” (1972) by Peter Singer, which appears in Russian for the first time. The authors analyze Singer’s argumentation in the perspective of the development of his views, determine the relevant historical and philosophical context of the paper, and outline the key lines of criticism of Singer’s approach. This allows us to look more closely at the problem of global poverty and the individual moral obligations of affluent agents.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.