Курс «Техно-стартап» Школы предпринимательства как введение в инновационную деятельность
The modern economy is in dire need of innovators who can design the technological image of the future. The best way to train future specialists in technonatural recognized as a project-based approach, augmented business education. But research has shown that in Russia, project activity in its existing forms does not fulfill its main functions: it does not give students the experience of creating innovations, does not develop critical thinking, does not form an interest in creating new products or services, their implementation and diffusion. The aim of the research was to search for approaches, methods and forms of training that will form students’ desire to choose a career in the field of technology innovation or high-tech entrepreneurship, give them the experience and knowledge necessary for the organization of a technology startup. In order to test the found pedagogical solutions, the techno-startup course of the school of entrepreneurship as an introduction to innovation. The study showed that the introduction of psychological training (teaching students the techniques of generating and testing ideas, empathy, conducting in-depth interviews, team building, planning, etc.), gamification of all types of classes, the development of course tasks as a tool for the development of design- and business thinking of students, monitoring the development of students ‘ competencies and components of their thinking with the help of specially prepared trackers, building the stages of the educational project in accordance with the stages of a real technology startup (the introduction of empathy stages, MVP, attracting external funding), allowed us to achieve the goal of the study.
The article considers the possibilities of "case-study" as a preliminary stage of a long-term educational project: revealing and actualization of inter-subject communications, maintenance of unity of methodical approaches in substantial and educational lines during the process of training college students, studying design activity stages in the process of a solution search of a problem in a concrete practical situation.
In the context of the introduction of the new federal state educational standard of secondary (full) general education the organization issue of project activities at the school raises sharply. In the article the authors attempts to answer this question. Also there are the main aspects of the project organization: The principles are highlighted in particular the process of organization and content.
The paper proposes and substantiates the use of the project activities as a resource for enhancing the involvement of students in the educational process, extraccurricular activities, communication between teachers and students. Consider the value of the involvement of students in terms of the competence-based approach.
The research work presents an analysis of the educational demands of middle managers of the modern University, as well as the motives of their occurrence. The practical importance of the results of the study/is to solve the problems of management accounting of the effectiveness of professional interactions of managers in the transition to the project activity to obtain additional resources for the development of the educational organization The study of factors and motives of formation of qualification deficits of managers of the University, which contributes to the solution of problems of management accounting efficiency of professional interactions of managers in the transition to the project activity.
The lack of consensus on the formulation of the concept of "critical thinking" has determined the existence of different approaches to teaching critical thinking, among which one can distinguish an "interdisciplinary" approach based on "universal" definitions and a disciplinary approach based on context-dependent definitions. The choice of approach largely depends on the educational traditions of the society. For the Russian educational community, which traditionally values subject knowledge, a disciplinary approach is more acceptable. Natural sciences have a high potential for the development of critical thinking due to their close relationship with informal logic and the scientific method. To realize this potential, it is necessary to change the goals of learning from memorizing and reproducing knowledge to shaping the thinking of a student who is able to find, evaluate, assimilate and apply this knowledge in new situations, creating innovations. This inevitably entails a change in the learning model. An important question is what should this model be? A model that relies on the essence of science as a process of discovering something new while following the scientific method is proposed. The model is based on a combination of the problem method and practical project activities. The problematic method is realized through a new type of assignments for natural science - natural science cases, which serve as simulators of "making discoveries" by recreating the situation of scientific search. Some cases reproduce situations of really perfect scientific discoveries (for example, the discoveries of Galileo and Mendeleev), and some suggest finding ideas for engineering and technological solutions to still unsolved problems (such natural science cases are called STEM – cases). Case assignments guide students along the path of the scientific method and serve as simulators for the development of those components of critical thinking that are included in the context-dependent definition of critical thinking (rationalism, logic, creativity, reflection and metacognitivism). STEM – cases are mini-projects carried out in small groups that prepare you to work on an individual project. The most important thing in an educational project is to go through all the stages of the scientific method and, as a result, get a product that has a certain degree of objective novelty - that is, innovation. Research involving students from three Moscow universities has shown that the «case + project» strategy has a positive effect on both the development of critical thinking components and the academic performance of students.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.