Is the difference in consumption and income an indication of petty corruption?
Based on micro-level data on reported household earnings, expenditures and assets, provided by the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) for the period 2000–2013, it is found that households with workers in the public sector receive lower earnings than households with members employed in the private sector but enjoy the same level of consumption. Controlling for the reported level of earnings, private households do not show a significantly higher probability of possessing summer cottages (dachas), cars and computers, or living in better housing conditions, or having a higher level of monetary savings. The differences in assets cannot be reconciled with the sizeable expenditure-income gap found. The precautionary motives of workers are not able to reconcile these discrepancies either: neither attitude to risk, nor risk itself, differ between individuals employed in the private and public sectors. It is hypothesized that employees continue working in the public sector despite their low rate of official pay, because of unreported income they receive, or bribes.
The author analize implementation of the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions of 1977 in the United Kingdom and in the United States. Special attention paid to the influence of the Convention on the development of anti-corruption compliance control in companies, to the liability for corruption offenses and application of the UK and the US anti-corruption law to foreign companies.
The aim of this work is to compare shifts in the consumer behaviour of Russian households since the mid-nineties till nowadays. The research considers the consumer behaviour of the Russians over almost the maximum possible available data RLMS period, focusing on the crisis years. Special attention is paid to analysis of the effects of crises in 1998 and 2008. To reveal effects as shifts in consumer behaviour in the aftermath of two crises panel data analysis is used to estimate QAIDS model. Due to the complete sample attrition observed in RLMS dataset since 1994, pseudo-panel approach is used.
In this paper we propose and implement a mechanism of modeling the price indices of food purchases by income groups of households. These indices could be interpreted as differentiated by income food inflation. This approach is based on the differences in prices of purchases for the income groups within each year. We provide the calculations of these indices for the RLMS data and Households Budget Survey conducted by Rosstat (HBS). We discuss possible modifications of the proposed procedure for goals of forecasting of inflation differentiated by income groups. In the result of the comparison with direct calculation of inflation separately for each income group we conclude that the proposed in the paper approach has several advantages, including lower requirements of amount of incoming information.
The paper observes the main patterns of youth consumption and leisure in contemporary Russia. It relies on the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE, a set of nationally representative household-based surveys which includes data collected from 1994 to 2013. The data shows that by 2010 the level of youth consumption has risen along with the households’ overall income and expenditure. Since financial problems were alleviated, there was a redistribution of time between work and leisure, so youth turned to the active cultural consumption, including non-entertainment services. However, the total increase in products and services consumed went hand in hand with the rise of differentiation in the availability of durables, patterns of consumption and leisure practices.