Из заметок комментатора. Булгаков. Есенин. Олейников
An article that clarifies the dark places in the works of Bulgakov, Eesenin and Oleinikov
In his works M. S. Petrovsky assumes that the source of the scene of Berlioz’s death in M. A. Bulgakov’s novel “The Master and Margarita” was an episode of the A. I. Kuprin’s story “Every wish”. We suppose that one can regard, as a nearly even more important pretext of the ending of chapter 3 of “The Master and Margarita”, a “tram episode” from the story of S. D. Krzhizhanovsky “Materials for the biography of Gorgis Katafalaki”. We pay special attention to one of the details common for Krzhizhanovsky and Bulgakov — a sign “Mind the tram!”, which is also mentioned, particularly, in the N. N. Nikandrov’s novel “Way to a woman”. The parallels between Nikandrov’s and Bulgakov’s novels have already been noted by the scholars; presumably, not only a warning sign, but also a mention of the deserted boulevard alley should be added to their list.
The paper examines the rejection of evil as an important narrative pattern in The Master and Margarita. Despite the unorthodox and controversial representation of evil and the absence of an unequivocal solution to this problem, Bulgakov’s novel foregrounds the situations in which the characters are supposed to identify and reject evil. For this reason, the metaphors of evil in Psalm 1, which also emphasizes the rejection of evil, are instrumental to the analysis of Bulgakov’s text. The particular focus of the paper is the Moscow writers familiar with the Eršalaim story. This narrative functions as the ultimate artistic truth in the novel, and the knowledge of it compels the characters to abandon their involvement in the production of untruthful literature. Because they fail to do so, their behavior may be described by means of the metaphors that define the three subsequent stages of evil in the first verse of the psalm. Walking is associated with Ivan who moves to a new perception of reality; standing with the critics denouncing the Master; and sitting with Berlioz who ridicules evident things in order to render them meaningless. The analysis draws on Sergej Averincev’s commentary on Psalm 1.
Interest of Mikhail Bulgakov to foxtrot «Hallelujah» is obvious. Researchers explain this writer’s interest in different ways. For example, Victor Losev calls this foxtrot «a blasphemous parody of Christian worship.» A natural question arises – what is the blasphemous nature of this foxtrot? May be the original English text? But there is no evidence that the text was known to Bulgakov. At the same time, foxtrot’s music in the USSR was published at least five times in different arrangements, and besides, three editions contained (different!) Russian texts written by Pavel Herman, Boris Timofeev and Anatoly d’Aktil respectively. In this article, based on the analysis of the Russian versions of the text, an assumption is made with which of texts the writer could be familiar and an attempt is undertaken to explain the reasons why he referred to this piece of music in his novel «The Master and Margarita».
The article analyzes the “ancient chapters” of The Master and Margarita from the perspective of the category of eventness, which makes possible to explicate the understanding of religious existence essentially revised by Bulgakov. The research maintains that this revision lay in the same direction as the major philosophical quests of the 20th c.; it consisted in giving up the immediate depiction of religious experience and in the attempt to demonstrate the form of the world in which a religious event takes place. The system of research approaches that the article draws upon involves philosophical concepts of M. Bakhtin, S. Kierkegaard and certain aspects of F. Dostoevsky’s literary anthropology. The discussion of the evangelical story of Zacchaeus also sheds new light on the meaningful pivots of the image of Pilate created by Bulgakov’s imagination.
"Semiotics of Scandal" is the third collection of the series "Mechanisms of culture". It presents the materials of an international conference held at the Center for Slavic studies (Sorbonne, Paris). The authors, using different methodologies, analyze different forms of scandal as one of the dominant categories of the literary process, history, and politics.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.