From Comparative to Entangled Histories
From Comparative to Entangled Histories: Perspectives on the Russian and Ottoman empires
The Inner Horde (Bukay Horde) was a part of Kazakh Little Horde which migrated to the Astrakhan province at the beginning of the 19th century. It caused disputes on its belonging during all its history: Orenburg authorities tried to control it as a part of Little Horde, Astrakhan ones – as a part of their province. Besides, the Inner Horde was created by a personal edict of emperor Paul I,therefore his successors were also interested in this khanate and issued their own acts for it. The author of the article gives the examples of collisions of different Russian state authorities with this small Kazakh khanate and analyzes the consequences of these collisions to describe problems of interactions of central and regional authorities on «national frontiers» of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century.
The article is an attempt of takign stock of the burgnoining field of empire studies but devising the framework of general challanges of historical understanding of empire of methodological nature. The main thesis is that studies of empire are heavily influenced by the visions and epistemes of modern social sciences which, in their turn, are woven into the performativity of nation. Thus the true understnding of empire is suggeted to lay in a radical historivization of this political and social phenomenon. The approach of historiziation is further enunciated in the article with the help of the theory of estrangement and with reference to the history of the Russian Empire.
The article is dedicated to the functioning of the law and local government system which was created by the Ottomans to control their Balcan lands. Local conflict management is considered in the multiethnic and multiconfessional environment. The paper also focuses on the synthesis of secular and Islamic traditions in Ottoman legislature, as well as the way law influenced the historical development of the Balcan nations.
The classic Mamluk era (mid-13th–early 16th century) was one of the brightest in the history of Egypt, as well as of the entire region of the Middle East. The reign of Sultan Burquq marked the beginning of what is known as the Burji or Circassian period (1382–1517). The fitna concept, which is the basic point of this article, holds a prominent place in the Islamic political doctrine, engaging with other key concepts, such as jihād and thaura. The significance of this notion and its application in the modern Arab-Islamic political culture require a detailed study of its connotations in the context of certain historical events.The authors of the present paper trace the history of the fitna concept based on the thorough scrutiny of the relevant Arabic sources of the time. The analysis of rare epistolary artifacts of the Mamluk era forms novelty of the research. The main issue brought by the authors is to clearly discern two separate connotations of the fitna concept—as a historical and political phenomenon and, as a religious and legal notion.
One of the most popular travel destinations among nobles, wealthy merchants, travellers and diplomats during the sixteenth century was the world of the Ottoman Empire, as European–Ottoman relations pervaded the centuries, combining cultural, political and economic interests. So there was increasing demand for pictorial as well as written records of life in the Ottoman world. Travellers and diplomats commissioned artists as an essential part of their duty to bring back to their countries as much information as possible on all things Turkish. One such record is an album dated 1590 and commissioned by Bartholomäus Schachman, mayor of Danzig (Gdan´sk), traveller and explorer, art patron and collector, benefactor and connoisseur. His journey through the Ottoman Empire lasted two years (1588–89), and his album, conveying the tale of his adventures, became one of the greatest travelogues of the sixteenth century.
The volume presents for the first time four 17th-century paintings commissioned by the Habsburg Ambassador Hans-Ludwig von Kuefstein after his diplomatic mission to Istanbul, accompanied by twelve gouache works from a collection in Austria. In spite of its diplomatic and political success in the Ottoman–Habsburg relations, the Kuefstein’s embassy is remembered first of all for its artistic legacy documented by the ambassador’s diary, the draft of a final report to the Emperor, diplomatic correspondence, a list of gifts presented and received, and last but not least, a series of gouaches, executed in Istanbul, and a series of oil paintings – which serve to illustrate various aspects of 17th-century Ottoman life, and provide a detailed account of the ambassador’s mission. The Orientalist Museum of Qatar curatorial and conservation departments, with the assistance of external scientific experts, have embarked upon a collaborative project to provide new insights into the history of the Ottoman–Habsburg relations. The result is the exhibition and the volume Heritage of Art Diplomacy: Memoirs of an Ambassador – the culmination of two years’ restoration and research work aimed to provide a better understanding of the cultural heritage in respect to its aesthetic and historic significance and its physical integrity.
Orientalism can be defined as a historical and cultural event, which has been uniting various aspects of cultural life for a number of centuries—literature, fine art, architecture, music and philosophy. A "vision" of the East—positive or negative—based on imagination or historic facts, it has generated an exotic image in our consciousness, which has its own right to existence. At a crucial and timely moment in the history of relations between the West and Islam, this book provides the context and essential background to understanding this part of the world and the intense debate on this theme. The art-biographer of the XVIII-century Ottoman Empire Franco-Flemish artist Jean Baptiste Vanmour (1671–1737) left a very important legacy—pictorial evidences which can be considered as historical illustrations of all the aspects of XVIII-century Ottoman life: from diplomatic ceremonies in the Ottoman court to everyday events of Istanbul multinational society. It will be of strong interest to scholars of Middle East studies, anthropology, history, cultural studies, post-colonial studies, and literary studies.
The article presents the analogy of the pre-revolutionary and modern interpretations of the role of ministries in the discussion of the draft law. The thesis about the fact, that the ministries were mandatory participant of the stage of discussing the draft law in the course of implementation of law-making activities of the legislative and law-consultative bodies in the Russian Empire.