Активность, деятельность, индивидуальность: между вчера и завтра (методологические заметки)
Based on the definition of the terms «activeness» and «activity», the author proceeds to analyze the relationship between them, and demonstrates the place of activeness in the organization of activity: the dynamic material, procedural implementation and own movement of activity. A provision is noted that the movement of activity, which is usually hidden by nature, is able to take the form of a special activity that has as its motive, goal and objective the development of relations that prompted the initial («ol») activity to be performed. In this context, the concepts of «adaptability» and «non-adaptability» are defined. Adaptability in an activity is described by three equalities: the desire («I want») = the obligation («I demand from myself»); volitional efforts («I demand from myself») = situational necessity («the situation requires from me»); and claims («I claim») = acquisitions («I attain»). Based on these criteria, an empirical study was conducted and the author discovered that «on average» people tend to manifest adaptability in situations of achievement. Upon reflection on individual variations in the levels of adaptability (the «threshold of situational necessity»), the author identified the phenomena of «soft non-adaptability» in the direction of a given activity; significant positive correlations are observed between the redundancy of promptings to solve a problem, on the one hand, and the levels of self-efficacy, as well as life satisfaction, on the other. The phenomena of «acute» non-adaptability (free actions towards the unpredetermined) that are closely related to the category of «subjectness», are also discussed. The relationship between the concepts of «adaptability» and «pre-adaptability», «des-adaptability» and «supra-adaptability» («dis-adaptability»). The concept of «personal selection» is introduced and the phenomena of a personality’s resistance to reproduce itself in other personalities are considered (the reversed principle of natural selection).