Crowd Arbitration: Blockchain Dispute Resolution
Internet technology makes digital value transactions between anonymous individuals possible, but leaves unanswered the question of how to resolve disputes between unidentified parties. Blockchain dispute resolution platforms provide a response to this problem. In the social dispute resolution systems for blockchain currently in use, pseudo anonymous jurors can resolve disputes between pseudo anonymous parties. This paper presents Kleros as the most illustrative blockchain dispute resolution platform BDRP. To describe the features of the Kleros dispute resolution platform and the qualification of jurors, this research employs an online dispute resolution survey of both the jurors and stakeholders of the Kleros platform. This study raises important questions about key elements of procedural justice in resolution platforms for blockchain disputes. The research underlines the pros and cons of dispute resolution for crowdsourced blockchain and contributes to the further development of online dispute resolution systems. It tests the wisdom of the crowd as the core attribute of the resolution process in crowdsource disputes. Crowdsource mass dispute resolution, coupled with cooperative jurors and blockchain technology, could ensure greater effectiveness and fairness of the dispute resolution process, especially the adjudication of online small claims disputes.
The development of private international law and international civil proceedings law in the area of consumer protection does not solve completely the problems faced by the weaker party when making cross-border consumer contracts. Conflict rules and jurisdiction rules are addressed primarily to the national court, but for economic reasons, consumers rarely seek protection of their rights in court if the case is related to the legal orders of several countries. The solution of this problem lies in the development of more flexible, rapid and inexpensive way to resolve disputes out of court. The examination of the EU Directive on Alternative Dispute Resolution leads to conclusion that it only sets basic standards for the out-of-court consumer dispute resolution industry, but contains no specific procedural rules. In addition, the article provides a critical view of the EU Regulation on the online dispute resolution: Webplatform for the consumer disputes resolution, created on its basis, has very limited functionality and essentially performs only mediation, facilitating the consumer to find the national alternative dispute resolution agency but not exercising proper arbitration of consumer disputes. Great hopes are vested in the UNCITRAL Rules on Online Dispute Resolution, under development: in addition to the principles and standards this document contains specific procedural rules. It is noted that the UNCITRAL Rules will be an important addition to the Regulation on online dispute resolution. However, in view of the universal international character of the UNCITRAL Rules, as a soft law act, they can be used not only in the European Union, but also in all other countries, where the law provides for the possibility of online dispute resolution. As an example of the successful online platform for the settlement of lowvalue disputes the author analyzes the experience of the Chinese e-commerce portal. A study of its Online Transactions Dispute Rules confirmed that in comparison with the procedure for resolving such disputes at the state courts, online arbitration is a faster and more effective alternative.
The goal of the present paper is to identify the main ways of use of cryptocurrencies and to clarify the place of cryptocurrencies in the system of digital currencies. Technological (use of distributed ledger) and organizational (absence of the center of emission) features of cryprocurrencies were identified. These features were used as a basis for a strategic classification matrix of digital currencies. Four main types of digital currencies were identified. It is demonstrated that cryptocurrencies can be divided into classic (decentralized) and centralized (collective) currencies. A description of specific features and prospects of development is given for each type of digital currencies. It is demonstrated that cryptocurrencies will mostly be used to increase the efficiency of payments, not as a substitute for traditional money. It is demonstrated that the refusal to use distributed ledger technology is not equal to refusal to use blockchain. Blockchain can be used to ensure high level of security for payment system with a sole emission center.
XVI International Symposium "Problems of Redundancy in Information and Control Systems" is the conference that covers a wide area of aspects of information and communication systems. The main goal of the Symposium foundation is the reinforcement of cooperation between the representatives of various scientific schools, a possibility for the participants to get awareness of the latest scientific and technical achievements and sharing their experience with colleagues. The covered topics include but not limited to information and coding theory, telecommunication protocols, internet of things systems, machine learning, data security, blockchain.
This book constitutes the contributions presented at the Blockchain Forum and the Central and Eastern Europe Forum (CEE Forum) held at the 17th International Conference on Business Process Management, BPM 2019, which took place in Vienna, Austria, in September 2019.
The Blockchain Forum deals with the use of blockchain for collaborative information systems. Conceptual, technical and application-oriented contributions are pursued within the scope of this theme. The Blockchain Forum received a total of 31 submissions; 10 full and 1 short paper were accepted for publication in this book.
The objective of the CEE Forum is to foster discussion for BPM academics from Central and Eastern Europe to disseminate their research, compare results and share experiences. For the CEE Forum 16 submissions were received and 6 full and 2 short papers were accepted for publication.
The book also contains one invited talk in full-paper length and 6 poster papers from the CEE Forum.
The proceeding of ICBTA 2020 includes papers submitted to the conference from universities, research institutes and the industry. A major goal and feature of the conference was to bring together academic scientists, engineers, and industry researchers to share their experiences and research results on Blockchain Technology, and discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted
The growing interest and expectations from the blockchain applica-tions attract many analysts to this issue. In what spheres of logistics and supply chain management blockchain is appropriate? What blockchain software solutions are available to companies now? This paper investigates the basic function-ality of the existing software solutions on the market, the comparative analysis of blockchain platforms used for developing the solutions for logistics is also carried out. The main trends of blockchain applications are identified, based on the analysis of the project experience on the use of blockchain, in logistics and supply chain management, in different countries. The problems, limitations and conditions of blockchain implementation are also determined.
The papers in this special issue focus on the emerging phenomenon of cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are digital financial assets, for which ownership and transfers of ownership are guaranteed by a cryptographic decentralized technology. The rise of cryptocurrencies’ value on the market and the growing popularity around the world open a number of challenges and concerns for business and industrial economics. Using the lenses of both neoclassical and behavioral theories, this introductory article discusses the main trends in the academic research related to cryptocurrencies and highlights the contributions of the selected works to the literature. A particular emphasis is on socio-economic, misconduct and sustainability issues. We posit that cryptocurrencies may perform some useful functions and add economic value, but there are reasons to favor the regulation of the market. While this would go against the original libertarian rationale behind cryptocurrencies, it appears a necessary step to improve social welfare.
The current challenges of many mobility solutions are based on an extremely fragmented booking system with complex service layers. A cross-company and user-friendly exchange of information and offers from different mobility providers is often not possible. Against this background, Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) has the potential to revolutionize the existing mobility sector and enable completely new business models. Thus, we present a distributed mobility platform, which is valuable for a variety of mobility services. In contrast to conventional platform approaches, the data management of our infrastructure is distributed, transparent, and cost-efficient. By prototypically implementing the concept, we can demonstrate its technical feasibility and at the same time demonstrate that the introduction of our distributed mobility concept will benefit both the supply and demand sides of public transportation.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/