Models for improving technical devices and information and measurement tools for space weather monitoring and geospatial data analysis
Space remains a largely unexploited frontier for cutting-edge research and technology development, policy development, and progressive education and training. The Sun accounts for more than 99% of the mass of the entire solar system. The incremental or transformative advances in civilisation have been the direct or indirect product of the influence of the Sun on Earth, being the ultimate source of energy. There still resides huge unexploited potential that demands humanity’s sophisticated understanding of the solar system and the four mysteries of the cosmos: light, gravity, space and time or space-time. The solar wind and its effects on space weather is an area of active research with immediate implications for early warning systems and the overall wellbeing of life on Earth. The sun's magnetic field and its variability as well as the changes in the atmosphere and their effects can cause detrimental effects. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), high-speed wind and energetic particles negatively impact power grids. Solar storms interfere with computers, banking systems, and disrupt satellites and GNSS technology. Charge particle emissions cause Aurora Australis and Aurora borealis. Mild space weather has degraded electric power quality, perturbed navigation systems, interrupted satellite functions and are hazardous to astronauts' health. Severe storms interfere with electric power system and cause the loss of satellites due to damaged electronics or increased orbital drag. An in-depth study of the ionosphere and climate helps to obtain information on their impact on agriculture, telecommunications system, and satellites. In summary, the following are usually affected by space weather events and processes.
A brief review of methods of diagnostics and monitoring of space weather in the Earth's magneto-
sphere, and the diagnostic instruments currently in use,is presented. The large scale of the magnetosphere,
the presence of several mutually related regions and processes, the variability of the structural variations are
shown to necessitate monitoring of these magnetospheric regions simultaneously or with a slight enough
time delay. Considering the large spatial scale of the three-dimensional space system of the Earth's magne-
tosphere (7 radii of the Earth in the direction of the Sun, 10 radii of the Earth in the perpendicular direction,
and practically 15 radii in the anti-solar direction), it is possible to roughly estimate the required number of
diagnostic stations (satellites) as 100. It is concluded that creation and launch of such a number of modern
research and service-class satellites is very expensive enterprise and not an obligatory for complex monitor-
ing of the magnetosphere. The discussed rational approach to the problem suggests creation of a system of
magnetospheric nanosatellites equipped with a minimum number of diagnostic instruments
Along with measures to improve the techniques, technology and organization of mining production, introduction of modern information systems are an important but underdeveloped area of activity of mining enterprises with the organization of industrial tours for review.
The use of high-efficiency equipment, measures for the protection of the natural environment, improving safety and production, its overall aesthetic quality, all contribute to the attraction of interest to review. Development of geotourism in turn, has a positive effect on economic growth, social and cultural development of the region, serves as an incentive to attract investment in mining production and upgrading local infrastructure.
Important the reciprocal process with mining companies aimed at recultivation of lands, damaged by mining operations. Simple recultivation (usually forestry) give way to action a broader scale - revitalization that is the conversion of disturbed lands to a form, more convenient for human life. It is expressed in many forms: the establishment of a water recreational areas in the place of residual mining quarry recesses; the device of cross and the ski runs on the spoils; the laying of trails in forest plantations; the installation of viewing platforms, etc.
The effective result of this activity is the increased interest from different groups of people to the mountain production, presenting it in public opinion as the standard of aesthetic and technological process, model of system of ensuring environmental safety.
In this paper, we report experimental data on the implantation of hydrogen ions of different energies into crystalline quartz samples. It was shown that irradiation with protons with an energy of 20 keV produces an amorphous film on the surface of a quartz sample, and irradiation with 90-keV protons results in the formation of a layer with interstitial defects and an increase in the unit-cell parameter of quartz with preservation of the crystal structure of the disturbed layer. The examination of the samples by thermodesorption mass spectrometry showed that high-energy irradiation resulted also in loosening of the surface layer and considerable expansion of high-potential adsorption sites, which was the reason for the observed peak desorption of gases. The existence of desorption peaks allowed us to calculate the activation energy of surface desorption of gas components. It was also found that an increase in irradiation energy tends to enhance the total degassing of samples.
. Currently for a mining science it is actively developing branch of knowledge, called "satellite technology", which has diverse practical applications for geodesy, mine surveying, control systems, mining logistic and transport complex, ensuring the safety and control of the risks there creation of tools and methods of the implementation of energy efficiency strategies. For specialists of mine surveying and geodesy introduction of practice, satellite-positioning methods has become almost revolutionary technological revolution that led to a radical revision of the structure of geodetic support of the country, fundamental changes in the methods field and laboratory work on the earth's surface. There are examples of current uses of satellite technology over the last decade at the leading companies of the mining sector. The creation of new methods of technical and economic audit determines the need for generation and proof of the most common and objective criteria and evaluation indicators for the design phase and launch of the satellite equipment. To extend the lifetime of spacecraft is pro-posed in the schematic design phase to calculate the possible effects of electrostatic discharges and to give recommendations for reducing their negative influence. Developed a new method that allows for 2-3 orders of magnitude to reduce the complexity of calculation for the pattern of spreading of the currents on the surface of spacecraft from electrostatic discharge. The method is based by the idea of macromodeling. The accuracy of calculations is very high (the inaccuracy does not exceed 1%).
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Papers about natural protection territories
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.