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Article

Models for improving technical devices and information and measurement tools for space weather monitoring and geospatial data analysis

Prokofyeva E. N., Adero N. J., Drebenstedt C., Vostrikov A. V.

Space remains a largely unexploited frontier for cutting-edge research and technology development, policy development, and progressive education and training. The Sun accounts for more than 99% of the mass of the entire solar system. The incremental or transformative advances in civilisation have been the direct or indirect product of the influence of the Sun on Earth, being the ultimate source of energy. There still resides huge unexploited potential that demands humanity’s sophisticated understanding of the solar system and the four mysteries of the cosmos: light, gravity, space and time or space-time. The solar wind and its effects on space weather is an area of active research with immediate implications for early warning systems and the overall wellbeing of life on Earth. The sun's magnetic field and its variability as well as the changes in the atmosphere and their effects can cause detrimental effects. Solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), high-speed wind and energetic particles negatively impact power grids. Solar storms interfere with computers, banking systems, and disrupt satellites and GNSS technology. Charge particle emissions cause Aurora Australis and Aurora borealis.  Mild space weather has degraded electric power quality, perturbed navigation systems, interrupted satellite functions and are hazardous to astronauts' health. Severe storms interfere with electric power system and cause the loss of satellites due to damaged electronics or increased orbital drag. An in-depth study of the ionosphere and climate helps to obtain information on their impact on agriculture, telecommunications system, and satellites. In summary, the following are usually affected by space weather events and processes.