Analytical TCP Model for Millimeter-Wave 5G NR Systems in Dynamic Human Body Blockage Environment
Dynamic blockage of radio propagation paths between the user equipment (UE) and the 5G New Radio (NR) Base Station (BS) induces abrupt rate fluctuations that may lead to sub-optimal performance of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) protocol. In this work, we characterize the effects of dynamic human blockage on TCP throughput at the 5G NR air interface. To this aim, we develop an analytical model that expresses the TCP throughput as a function of the round-trip time (RTT), environmental, and radio system parameters. Our results indicate that the blockage affects TCP throughput only when the RTT is comparable to the blocked and non-blocked state durations when the frequency of state changes is high. However, such conditions are not typical for dynamic body blockage environments allowing TCP to benefit from the high bandwidth of 5G NR systems fully.