Several studies have analyzed human gait data obtained from inertial gyroscope and accelerometer sensors mounted on different parts of the body. In this article, we take a step further in gait analysis and provide a methodology for predicting the movements of the missing parts of the legs. In particular, we propose a method, called GaIn, to control non-invasive, robotic, prosthetic legs. GaIn can infer the movements of both missing shanks and feet for humans suffering from double trans-femoral amputation using biologically inspired recurrent neural networks. Predictions are performed for casual walking related activities such as walking, taking stairs, and running based on thigh movement. In our experimental tests, GaIn achieved a 4.55◦ prediction error for shank movements on average. However, a patient’s intention to stand up and sit down cannot be inferred from thigh movements. In fact, intention causes thigh movements while the shanks and feet remain roughly still. The GaIn system can be triggered by thigh muscle activities measured with electromyography (EMG) sensors to make robotic prosthetic legs perform standing up and sitting down actions. The GaIn system has low prediction latency and is fast and computationally inexpensive to be deployed on mobile platforms and portable devices.
LoRaWAN infrastructure has become widely deployed to provide wireless communications for various sensor applications. These applications generate different traffic volumes and require different quality of service (QoS). The paper presents an accurate mathematical model of low-power data transmission in a LoRaWAN sensor network, which allows accurate validation of key QoS indices, such as network capacity and packet loss ratio. Since LoRaWAN networks operate in the unlicensed spectrum, the model takes into account transmission attempt failures caused by random noise in the channel. Given QoS requirements, we can use the model to study how the performance of a LoRaWAN network depends on the traffic load and other scenario parameters. Since in LoRaWAN networks the transmissions at different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) typically do not collide, we use the model to assign MCSs to the devices to satisfy their QoS requirements.
In the absence of traditional communication infrastructures, the choice of available technologies for building data collection and control systems in remote areas is very limited. This paper reviews and analyzes protocols and technologies for transferring Internet of Things (IoT) data and presents an architecture for a hybrid IoT-satellite network, which includes a long range (LoRa) low power wide area network (LPWAN) terrestrial network for data collection and an Iridium satellite system for backhaul connectivity. Simulation modelling, together with a specialized experimental stand, allowed us to study the applicability of different methods of information presentation for the case of transmitting IoT data over low-speed satellite communication channels. We proposed a data encoding and packaging scheme called GDEP (Gateway Data Encoding and Packaging). It is based on the combination of data format conversion at the connection points of a heterogeneous network and message packaging. GDEP enabled the reduction of the number of utilized Short Burst Data (SBD) containers and the overall transmitted data size by almost five times.
Wi-Fi HaLow is an adaptation of the widespread Wi-Fi technology for the Internet of Things scenarios. Such scenarios often involve numerous wireless stations connected to a shared channel, and contention for the channel significantly affects the performance in such networks. Wi-Fi HaLow contains numerous solutions aimed at handling the contention between stations, two of which, namely, the Centralized Authentication Control (CAC) and the Distributed Authentication Control (DAC), address the contention reduction during the link set-up process. The link set-up process is special because the access point knows nothing of the connecting stations and its means of control of these stations are very limited. While DAC is self-adaptive, CAC does require an algorithm to dynamically control its parameters. Being just a framework, the Wi-Fi HaLow standard neither specifies such an algorithm nor recommends which protocol, CAC or DAC, is more suitable in a given situation. In this paper, we solve both issues by developing a novel robust close-to-optimal algorithm for CAC and compare CAC and DAC in a vast set of experiments.