Практики инициативного бюджетирования в российских регионах
The article contains the analysis of initiative budgeting practices in five Russian regions: Altay, Stavropol, Kirov, Tver and Tula regions. Initiative (participatory) budgeting – the practice of engaging citizens into decision making on budget funds allocation, which is at the junction of formal and informal institutions: it is included in the system of state and municipal finances and is based on social ties and communication mechanisms in local communities. The article revealed that initiative budgeting has become a systemic managerial practice is the analysed regions, which is used to distribute funds between municipalities on a competitive basis. The regularities of citizen participation, changes in the structure of their preferences regarding public infrastructure during the implementation of initiative budgeting programs were identified, conclusions on the relationship between types of projects and co-financing by citizens, on the specifics of stimulating community involvement in public decision-making, the relationship between the theme of projects and the level of public support were drawn.
Development of capital relationship occurs in many areas. We can identify the main two of them: the development of the main organizational form of business activity as joint-stock companies and the development of their reproductive activity, which is reflected in the fundamental change in the processes of formation of the cost of the goods produced by these companies.
The main trend in the development of a joint stock company may be called the "socialization of capital", which not only retains many of the old ways of the private appropriation of profits, but also creates new kinds of them. The chain of commercial structures development involves conversion of the national joint-stock companies into the international joint-stock companies, or multinational companies. This, in turn, leads to the transformation of a number of states, among which we include the developed or rich countries of the world, into a kind of "joint-stock" societies, whose citizens have an opportunity to increase (through an appropriate system of maintenance of a high level of wages and social benefits) their personal consumption financed by appropriating a disproportionately large part of the total world income by the country as a whole. Such a country objectively turns into a special economic-social form of existence of the joint-stock company.
The basis for such a transformation of the state into a sort of joint-stock company is a new nature of production of the majority of modern goods. It consists in the change of the creation process of goods’ value which leads to the complete subordination of all its stages to the corresponding MNC groups.
This article discusses a set of tools of government enacted in Russia between 2009and 2013 to provide support to so-called socially-oriented nonprofit organizations (SO/NPOs). In Russia this approach is to be considered as a serious policy innovation since so far government policy vis-à-vis the nonprofit sector could be described as either indifferent or predominantly restrictive. The conceptual framework employed is based on the concept of “third-party government” and the tools of government approach. We first consider the legal definition of the subsector of SO/NPOs, and then investigate the newly introduced tools of government support featuring data on the scope of Russian federal government support for SO/NPOs, showing substantial similarity to government tool kits employed to support NPOs elsewhere in the world.