### Article

## Koszul duality between Betti and Cohomology numbers in Calabi-Yau case

Let X be a smooth projective Calabi-Yau variety and let L be a Koszul line bundle on X. We show that for Betti numbers of a maximal Cohen-Macaulay module over the homogeneous coordinate ring A of X there are formulas similar to the formulas for cohomology numbers. This similarity is realized via the box-product resolution of the diagonal ΔX ⊂ X × X.

We apply Orlov's equivalence to derive formulas for the Betti numbers of maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules over the cone an elliptic curve $(E,x)$ embedded into $\mathbb{P}^{n-1}$, by the full linear system $|\mathcal{O}(nx)|$, for $n>3$. The answers are given in terms of recursive sequences. These results are applied to give a criterion of (Co-)Koszulity.

In the last two sections of the paper we apply our methods to study the cases $n=1,2$\,. Geometrically these correspond to the embedding of an elliptic curve into a weighted projective space. The singularities of the corresponding cones are called minimal elliptic. They were studied by K.Saito \cite{Saito74}, where he introduced the notation $\widetilde{E_8}$ for $n=1$, $\widetilde{E_7}$ for $n=2$ and $\widetilde{E_6}$ for the cone over a smooth cubic, that is, for the case $n=3$\,. For the singularities $\widetilde{E_7}$ and $\widetilde{E_8}$ we obtain formulas for the Betti numbers and the numerical invariants of MCM modules analogous to the case of a plane cubic.

We study Calabi-Yau threefolds fibered by abelian surfaces, in particular, their arithmetic properties, e.g., Neron models and Zariski density.

In this paper we prove that the generating series of the Poincare polynomials of quasihomogeneous Hilbert schemes of points in the plane has a beautiful decomposition into an infinite product. We also compute the generating series of the numbers of quasihomogeneous components in a moduli space of sheaves on the projective plane. The answer is given in terms of characters of the affine Lie algebra~$\widehat{sl}_m$.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.