Areas and forms of regional cooperation in multi-structured (matreshka-style) regions (Tyumen region, Russia)
The problem of the administrative, economic and social sustainability of a group consisting of neighboring regions with close ties has no clear solution yet. Should closely-tied regions in the long run form a centralized system of administrative bodies, compress their budgets into one, and construct unified social programs, or not? To answer this question, in the article we describe a case that represents the paramount form of cooperation amongst closely-tied regions. It is the case of the so-called multi-structured region, or “matreshka-style” region, where all the relationships culminated. Analysis of the history and the present conditions of inter-regional cooperation, its areas and forms, in a unique multi-structured region of Russia, namely the Tyumen region1, shows that such centralization has its limits, and instead of “rough” centralization, more sophisticated procedures (programmed forms of economic cooperation, legally introduced forms of administrative coordination, structured distribution of management functions, combination of partially connected inter-regional budgetary processes) should be elaborated to provide the sustainable development of closely-tied regions.
Rethinking the standard theory of democratic transition the author shows the uneven character of Central Asian political regimes. He sketches different strategies of political modernization in order to represent the impact of Post-Soviet constitutional reforms regarding such items as separation of powers, parliamentarism, presidential power and the role of political leadership. He discusses the importance of constitutional developments for traditional societies in transition, and concludes that post-communist constitutional development in the region is still far from complete.
The author analyzes from general perspectives of the management theory how the concept of separation of powers is implemented in education, and how it can be improved in the future. It is shown in the article that in a period since 2004, when an administrative reform started and the united Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation began its work, and till spring 2012, when the government of the Russian Federation changed, reauthorization from the legislative to the executive branches and from regional to federal authorities took place. Issues and risks of centralization of powers are considered with specific reference to management practices. Also, options for solving the problem of centralization of powers given by different power structures are analyzed, other solutions to this problem are offered.
This article focuses on the American experience of guaranteeing decisional independence of judges. Historically the United States turned to be the pioneer in the area of legislative regulation of the status of judiciary power. With forming the normative base of both functioning of judiciary and the status of judges the following factor (which was repeatedly emphasized by the Founding Fathers) was taken into consideration: actual separation of powers is impossible without independent judiciary, and thus institutional independence of judiciary is impossible without decisional independence of individual judges. The article includes some comments of American judges regarding the essence generating prestige and institutional independence of the American judiciary and the qualities necessary for a good judge. The article also describes the doctrine of judicial activism.
This article is about alternative strategies of constitutional transformation in the period of elaboration of the Russian Constitution of 1993. The author analyses historical origins of basic constitutional principles such as parliament democracy, separation of powers and different forms of government and their interpretation during political crisis of the period under consideration.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.