Билет в новую жизнь или о том, как якобы вернуться из-за рубежа
The article examines the unexpected effects of the May 5th 1779 Manifesto on the formation of deception practices among Russian peasants residing near the Swedish and Polish-Lithuanian borders. In the Manifesto, Catherine the Great invited fugitives to return to Russia, offering them an opportunity to change their social status and become state peasants, townsmen, or merchants, as well as to receive a six-year tax waiver. To achieve this, they needed to obtain returnee passes at border outposts, specifying their future status and residence. However, this decree proved appealing not only to the official returnees from abroad, but also to the peasants inside the country who sought to exploit it. The article proceeds to explore individual instances of deception and one peasant uprising in 1780 in Novgorod and Tver gubernias. Through bribery, forgery, and lying, several peasants managed to unlawfully register in towns along the western border and near the Volga. In turn, thousands of rebels illegally obtained authentic returnee passes through the mediation of a certain Lieutenant Palander, serving at a Russian outpost near the Swedish border, and claimed to have freedom from their landlords. The analysis of several specific cases lies at the heart of this article, which seeks to demonstrate the importance of the interplay between various informal practices and the understanding of legality by rural inhabitants.
This article reviews the institutional economics researches of slavery and serfdom. The exploration of the comparative institutional advantages and disadvantages of forced labor enriches various historical studies. On the example of the Great Princedom of Moscow, author considers reasons for establishment of the serfdom and how it affected the distribution of welfare.
The monograph contains the results of large-scale collective project on Integrated Studies of social mobility in modern Russia. Theoretical and empirical analysis are based on the proposed authors multidimensional social mobility concepts or concepts “Broad life changes” that take into account different dimensions of social and spatial movements. In the object of researchers interest included social strata that are at different poles of the social hierarchy and representing both "top" and and the "bottoms" of Russian society. Combined methodological approach and use of mix methods allows you to present the processes mobility as through the lens of representative population polls, and through these interviews. In addition to objective characteristics of social mobility considered more complex phenomena associated with subjective mobility, such as habitus, motivational repertoire of mobility, social and cultural capital. Monograph supplement and enrich the materials of external participants, including international, working in similar paradigms.
The authors argue that landlord’s income per male soul grew as reducing the size of an estate. Moreover the productive capacity of the serfs in economy of two or three estates was higher than in households of one estate. The work is based on a unique archival dataset.
Recent decades have witnessed an increase in the number of works dedicated to the analysis of effects of historical events on the choice of institutions and further economical and social development of regions. This article employs the new institutional economics theory approach to consider the choices regarding title to land and serfdom in Moscovy and Rzeczpospolita (earlier the Grand Duchy of Lithuania) in the 16th-17th centuries. The author emphasises the factors, which have affected the choice of institutional development trajectory, and considers the influence exerted by these institutes on the political and military development of these states. This article shows how the contingent property rights in Moscovy turned out to be competitive in the conditions of a considerable contribution of decentralisation factors to defence capacity and, opposite to the situation in Rzeczpospolita, ensured the formation of large and efficient troops. This work contributes to research on property rights and Russian economic history.
In this article, we discuss the main theoretical approaches to the interpretation of migration biographies and distinguish the main motives and factors of spatial movements. We also analyze the relationship between migration movements and social mobility. In addition, considerable attention is given to key methodological approaches to the analysis of migration and migration biographies. In particular, we examine the biographical method to reconstruct the trajectory of the migration of the individual throughout his or her life. Also highlighted, in particular, is the use of advanced methods of statistical analysis – event history analysis and sequence analysis – which take a considerable amount of time and require ample creativity in preparing data.