Свойства дискурсивных формул на примере русских конструкций ты что и что ты
The paper discusses semantic description of the so-called discourse formulae, idiomatic expressions used as speaker's reactions in a dialogue. They are considered in the framework of construction grammar, as a peripheral class of constructions with its specific properties. A case study of two synonymous Russian discourse formulae TY ČTO and ČTO TY provides an account of the components that need to be represented in the description of the constructions that belong to this class: namely, the characteristics of the speech act to which the discourse formula reacts and the characteristics of the reaction itself. The analysis of the entries of the two constructions in the Russian National Corpus reveals that the range of meanings that can be expressed by them includes: 1) negative assessment of the interlocutor's decisions; 2) questioning the cause of the ongoing situation; 3) interrupting some particular kinds of the interlocutor's action or state of mind (i.e., consolation and blandishments); 4) surprise, and 5) negation. These results give an estimate of the set of meanings that may be attributed to other discourse formulae. A quantitative corpus analysis of the use of these two constructions is also conducted, showing that their distribution among the different types of the given contexts is not identical: in particular, ČTO TY tends to express negation and is rarely used to express negative assessment. These differences are discussed in the light of the diachronic change of TY ČTO and ČTO TY, suggesting different patterns of their pragmaticalization based on the corpus data.