Inequality in Extracurricular Education in Russia
The article considers the structure of the inequality of access to extra-curricular education in Russia and factors influencing it. Among the main barriers are the territorial context, urban and rural education, the families’ socioeconomic status and cultural capital. It is also showed that the factors of the inequality are also produced with strong spatial (interregional, inter-municipal) differentiation; the sector’s peculiarities of regulation and policy. Despite active measures of the state policy in increasing participation coverage of in extracurricular education and activities, the questions of social differentiation’s risks remain not solved. Tools for identifying risk categories have not been developed.
This article discusses ways to stimulate students' motivation to participate in extracurricular activities. The author points out the following forms of extra-curricular activities: administrative, informative and entertaining. The author proposes the scale of assessment of students for participation in extracurricular activities. These forms should be taken into account in the rating system of the student's academic achievement
In this study, we analyze self-reported development experience of adolescents involved in various extracurricular activities. We surveyed a large number of students (9th grade) across several regions of the Russian Federation: St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region, Tomsk and Tomsk region, and Pskov. The total number of respondents was 3367. The self-assessment of skills and competencies we used a recently developed YES instrument (Hansen, Larson, 2005). We surveyed the students involved into a range of organized, adult-let extracurricular activities (in hobby groups, sports teams and clubs), and analyzed the obtained data using the method of multiple regression. We have established a connection between specific types of activities and the development of specific personal and interpersonal skills: adolescents involved in individual sports and martial arts believe that these activities help them to develop time management skills and goal setting; development of teamwork skills occurs for any sports and performing activities (dance, theater, etc.); these occupations also help them to acquire the social capital. Individual sports and martial arts offer the most favorable setting for development of most of skills and competencies. At the same time, any types of activities (participation in various sports, fine arts, or academic clubs) assist the youth in building their identities. While all types of extracurricular activities have a positive impact on the development of personality and interpersonal skills, each type of activity can be characterized by its own unique profile.
The paper presents results of a large-scale research on the scope of services in extracurricular and extra-school education and on assessment of the potential role of education beyond the classroom and informal education in solving children socialization issues. The research was carried out through questioning students as consumers of education services. A new instrument was developed and tested to allow for a detailed description of various aspects of extracurricular activities and their correlation with studies and social and psychological characteristics of students. An extensive statistic material (over 6,000 questionnaires filled out by students from several regions of Russia) was used to analyze the degree of engagement in out-of-class activities among children of different age; the activities that are more popular for specific age groups; the age range when children are most engaged in such activities; the reasons for non-participation in extracurricular activities; the infrastructure of education beyond the classroom; the relative frequency of structured and non-structured classes; the correlation between out-of-class activities and development of self-esteem, feeling of community, and satisfaction. Age- and gender-related profiles of various classes are described. It appears that structured extracurricular activities, unlike unstructured ones, correlate with higher self-esteem (both overall and academic), stronger sense of belonging, and better satisfaction with school.
Why do children learn in different ways: some are good students who show interest and zeal, while others are lazy and have to be taught against their will? Why do schools have over- and underachievers? Of course, there are a multitude of reasons. But almost 50 years ago it was shown using large data sets that families with high socioeconomic status are more likely to have children who are good students. Of course, there are many examples of successful students from poor families. However, they tend to be the exception to the rule. The certainty of success in school increases with rising socioeconomic status.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.