Проблема «структура/действие» в XXI в.: изменения в социальной реальности и выводы для исследовательской повестки
This article addresses traditional for social thought question of “structure/agency”
relations in the context of current problems of socio-economic
development at the global and national levels. The focus is more on general social theory. The key thesis
of the present paper is that, in the context of negative trends in socio-economic dynamics and significant
increase in the pace of social and technological change, the phenomenon of “de-structuration” takes
place implying that in various domains of social life (economic, political, cultural e.a.) structures are
more and more subject to change thus opening opportunities for “transformative agency” and creating
new institutions that may potentially contribute to positive change in socioeconomic development.
However, authors suggest that dominating approach in sociological research is insufficient to address
these issues. It is demonstrated that human capital theory and, in particular, the T. Schultz’s idea
about the “entrepreneurial element” of human capital, may be useful for theoretical elaborations and
practical solutions responsive to challenges in socioeconomic development. Rich heritage of the Russian
sociological tradition may help renovate theoretical and methodological toolbox of sociology.