Domain-general and math-specific self-perceptions of perseverance as predictors of behavioral math persistence.
Three studies examine a novel pathway by which the perseverance component of the personality trait grit might predict college students’ behavioral persistence when solving challenging math problems. Specifically, we focus on the intervening role of what we refer to as math-specific self-perceptions of perseverance, which captures students’ perceived tendency and ability to persevere on challenging math problems. Across studies, we found that this math-specific construct was correlated with behavioral math persistence, whereas the domain-general perseverance component of grit was not. Despite there being no correlation between one’s general perceptions of perseverance and behavioral persistence on math problems, we consistently found significant indirect effects of general perceptions through math-specific perceptions of perseverance. That is, in all three studies, grittier students viewed themselves as more capable of persevering on challenging math problems, which ultimately predicted their behavioral persistence at a later time point.
A. L. Duckworth proposed “grit” as a personal trait, which includes passion and perseverance for long-term goals. Studies show that gritty people achieve their goals, are psychologically prosperous, quickly recover from failures, and cope with difficult life situations easier than others. We wanted to explore whether grit is really a mental resource that allows to cope with fears, uncer-tainty, and failures for the sake of subjectively significant goal. Two hundred thirty-five respondents took part in the study. The method of content-anal-ysis was used. The following units of analysis were identified – “subjective well-being”, “overcoming difficulties”, “significant goal”. The hypotheses put forward have been partially confirmed. Important results were obtained that testified to the ambiguous role of grit. These data will have to be checked in order to find out when grit is a mental resource, and when its manifesta-tions are detrimental to the personality.
This article empirically studies the impact of perseverance and passion for long term goals (GRIT) on educational achievements. Specifically, the study compares GRIT levels between migrants and native school students, and tests the role of GRIT in explaining school achievements of migrants. Based on regression analysis and using a sample of 2,003 ninth graders, including 178 migrants from the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, the results did not suggest an educational gap between native students and first generation migrants, ethnic Tatar migrants, and those from Central Asia. In addition, GRIT has significant effects in explaining the educational achievements of these migrant groups. On the contrary, the findings suggest that native students outperform their ethnic Russian migrant peers.
Goal achievement is one of the key factors of psychological well-being. Grit is believed to be the most important predictor of success. It is a non-cognitive personality trait that includes two elements - perseverance in effort and passion for long-term goals. Those demonstrating the grit continue to work despite the setbacks, adversities, and plateaus throughout the process. This study focused on the phenomenology of experience during achieving goals. Based on self-identification of the respondents two groups were formed. Exploratory study with mixed design was conducted. In particular, the qualitative data was analyzed with D. McAdams' narrative analysis method and later examined with the Chi-square test. Open-ended questions related to the influence of grit on the achieving goals capacity were formulated. These questions covered personal aspects as self-esteem, fears, cognitive reappraisal and the formation of coping strategies. Based on the answers eight themes were formed and analyzed: Factors that influence the goals choice, The role of self-control in achieving goals, Experiencing difficulties and failures, Psychological well-being, Obsessive attitude towards goals, Respondents' beliefs about themselves, Generalization of fear. Semantic units within each theme were specified. Fragments of respondents' narratives are provided. Results showed that grit can perform as a mental resource and a supportive factor. At the same time, grit has the downside – it might encourage people to achieve unnecessary goals. Further research is needed in order to understand the relation of the grit manifestation depending on the personal story.
Scholars have presented much evidence that supports a crucial role of human agency in understanding human life. Yet agency is still one of the most “slippery” and elusive concepts that bring confusions to social science research. Building on recent attempts to build theoretical and empirical clarity of agency as a sociological concept, this chapter sheds light on additional facet of agency: a behavioural dimension of agency beyond subjective agentic beliefs and future-oriented expectations. This chapter introduces relevant concepts, such as grit, that tap into the behavioural facet of agency and shows why it is important to incorporate this additional component into our understanding of agency in an individual’s life course, particularly in the contexts of educational and occupational achievement.
Grit is widely considered a trait composed of perseverance of effort (PE) and consistency of long-term interests (CI) that is positively associated with educational and professional attainments. However, because of unclear relations between the two elements that compose grit, PE and CI, the theoretical model of the construct of grit is still questionable. On the one hand, we have extensive evidence that the overall score for grit can predict important life outcomes. On the other hand, predictive ability does not necessarily indicate that a measure reflects a unitary psychological trait. In the case of the Grit scale, a number of works have shown that treating grit as a whole or higher-order construct is psychometrically and psychologically unsound. In this work, we aimed to explore the relationship of PE and CI with long-term educational outcomes in desired educational trajectories while controlling for potentially confounding factors. We hypothesized that if PE and CI are facets of a unified grit construct, we would find consistent patterns in these facets for a range of educational outcomes. Our study was conducted on a large sample of students (N=3110) from a national longitudinal study of school and university graduates. These students were also participants in both the TIMSS-2011 and PISA-2012 studies. When the students were in 9th grade, we assessed their grit, academic achievement, and educational aspiration. The next year, we obtained information about the choices students made after completing compulsory education: staying in high school vs. obtaining vocational training. Two years later, we again assessed the students’ educational and life outcomes. We run two regression models. The first model was a model with PE and CI as predictors only. In the second model, SES, gender, cognitive ability scores and educational aspirations were added as covariates. To test the mediation hypotheses, we also run regression models for possible mediators (educational aspirations and achievement) as outcomes. The results showed that perseverance was a better predictor than interests, although the effects of perseverance on long-term educational outcomes were more often indirect. Consistency of interests did not predict educational trajectories or achievement. Accordingly, we failed to find any consistent patterns in perseverance and interests with long-term educational outcomes. These findings are discussed in terms of the nature of the grit construct and the validity of the Grit scale.
This paper proposes the currently fashionable psychological notion of “grit” as a potentially useful variable in sociological analysis and explores its potential for contributing to addressing sociological concerns. Grit, comprising perseverance and passion toward long‐term goals, has received growing attention within academia and from the general public as a strong predictor of achievement. Grit captures an important, noncognitive, underdeveloped aspect of agency not included in life course or stratification studies. Grit can contribute to our understanding about how the subjective beliefs that are typically treated as agency are actually translated into volitional action that constructs one's life course, a crucial potential life course mechanism. This paper suggests incorporating grit into sociological understanding of individual‐level aspects of stratification, moving beyond its current conception anchored fully in psychology, to further understand what it is, where it comes from, and why it is sociologically useful.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.