Действительно ли философия слишком важна для физики, чтобы оставлять ее на откуп философам?
In this article, I analyze the arguments against the importance of the ontological and epistemological issues of modern physics. The connection between physics and philosophy is examined on the basis of several concepts of the connection between philosophy and science. I conclude that only physicists can effectively solve the philosophical issues of their field of science. Subsequently, it can accelerate the revolutionary transformations in the physical picture of the world.
In the book, the proceedings of Conference ‘Revolutions in the modern world: science – culture – society’ (7–8 November 2017, Philosophy Department of Moscow State University) time to one hundredth anniversary of October Revolution in Russia. The endeavour is made to study the phenomenon of revolution from different viewpoints: from a riot and bloody tragedy in the society to re-making the world attempt under novel religious slogans, from art vanguard revolution to the revolutions in science and technology in the twentieth century
In this paper we analyze the concept of "scientific revolution" in the work of the French philosopher, mathematician and economist Antoine Augustin Cournot (1801-1877). Cournot offers an original vision of the history and the historical process based on the concept of «chance» (hazard) which comes from his studies in the mathematical theory of probability. The history for Cournot is a combination of accidental and regular where the special role is played by great individuals. In science, it's great spirits who are able to produce a revolutionary restructuring of scientific knowledge by the discovery of new facts or by the invention of hypotheses that lead to improved organization and classification of the fundamental scientific principles.
Using the example of the works of a well-known British scholar, Frances Yates, the present author analyses a rational attitude to the so-called “Western esotericism”. Yates was among the first researchers to study the esoteric (“hermeticist-cubalistic” by her terminology) element in Renaissance and early Modern time culture. She has devoted four books to this topic. Yates’s approach is considered through the prism of a few key themes: esotericism and the scientific revolution, esotericism and artistic creativity, the history of John Dee. The author places Yates’s ideas in the general context of a rational view of Western esotericism in the second half of the twentieth century
Evgeny Valentinovich De Roberti - Russian sociologist, philosopher-positivist and economist of Spanish origin.
In this chapter we are going to examine the logical connections between various descriptions of the Scientific Revolution proposed by Alexandre Koyré. We are going to propose an attentive and detailed reading of texts written by Koyré in different periods of his life in order to identify various aspects of his interpretation of the revolution in thought that occurred in early modern Europe. His most famous description of the Scientific Revolution (the dual characterization) indicates two aspects of the process that led to the emergence of classical physics: “destruction of the Cosmos” and “geometrization of space”. However, Koyré frequently used other expressions for characterization of the period, such as “mathematization of Nature”, or transition “from the world of more-or-less to the universe of precision” and “from the closed world to the open universe”. We could expect that Koyré would try to reduce his initial dual characterization to one single formula. I argue here that, on the contrary, the duality of description had a special meaning which permits us to keep in focus the complexity of the intellectual change that occurred during 17th century, when new science was rising from a new conception of reality, and a new world-view was emerging from the new science
This book is the first to trace the origins and significance of positivism on a global scale. Taking their cues from Auguste Comte and John Stuart Mill, positivists pioneered a universal, experience-based culture of scientific inquiry for studying nature and society—a new science that would enlighten all of humankind. Positivists envisaged one world united by science, but their efforts spawned many. Uncovering these worlds of positivism, the volume ranges from India, the Ottoman Empire, and the Iberian Peninsula to Central Europe, Russia, and Brazil, examining positivism’s impact as one of the most far-reaching intellectual movements of the modern world. Positivists reinvented science, claiming it to be distinct from and superior to the humanities. They predicated political governance on their refashioned science of society, and as political activists, they sought and often failed to reconcile their universalism with the values of multiculturalism. Providing a genealogy of scientific governance that is sorely needed in an age of post-truth politics, this volume breaks new ground in the fields of intellectual and global history, the history of science, and philosophy.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.