История ледника Донгуз-Орун по биоиндикационным, историческим, картографическим источникам и данным дистанционного зондирования
On the basis of dendrochronological, lichenometric and historical data with the use of Earth remote sensing materials, the evolution of the Donguz-Orun Glacier has been reconstructed over the past centuries. In this work we used aerial photographs of 1957, 1965, 1981, 1987, satellite image of 2009, as well as descriptions, photographs, maps and plans of the glacier of the 19th and 20th centuries, data of instrumental measurements of the glacier end position in the second half of the 20th – early 21st centuries, dendrochronological dating of pine on the front part of the valley, and juniper to date coastal moraines, and the results of lichenometry studies. It has been established that the Donguz-Orun Glacier in the past had several clearly marked advances about 100, 200 and more than 350 years ago, which are expressed in relief in the form of uneven-aged coastal moraines. Despite the fact that the Donguz-Orun Glacier differs from many mountain-valley glaciers of the Caucasus primarily by its predominantly avalanche feeding and a moraine cover, almost entirely covering its surface, the main periods of its advances are consistent with the known large fluctuations of mountain glaciers during the Little Ice Age in the early 20th, early 19th, and, probably, in the middle of the 17th century. However, unlike most other Caucasian glaciers, the Donguz-Orun Glacier advanced in the 1970s–2000s. The scale of its degradation from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st century is also uncharacteristic for the Caucasus: the reduction in the length for longer than a century period is only about 100 m.