Because of their relevance in everyday life there is an increasing amount of research about social abilities. However, the structure of individual differences in so-called “social intelligence” has not yet been studied. Here we take a differential-psychological approach to investigate the important social ability of face cognition - the ability to perceive, memorize and correctly recognize human faces. We provide findings from a study about age differences in the means and covariance structure of face cognition abilities from ages 6 to 21 years. Using multiple measurements, based on a large sample of participants (N = 338) and analyzing the internal structure of face cognition with Local Structural Equation Modelling (LSEM), we were able to arrive at the following conclusions. Face cognition in childhood and adolescence can be represented as a two-factorial model including face perception and memory. LSEM revealed a slight increase of factor loadings on face perception and memory across age, occurring between 8 and 12 years and after 16 years. The relationship between face perception and memory was, however, invariant from childhood to young adulthood (r = .78). Factor means showed a slight significant improvement of face perception and memory across participant age. Thus, we suggest for discussion that this approach could extend the understanding of “social intelligence”.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.