Влияние цифровизации на систему профессионального образования
The relevance of the analyzed problem is associated with the need to de-termine the guidelines for the organizational development of universities. The source of organizational development is a dynamic external environment. The article ana-lyzes the problems of the relationship of universities with the external environment. The authors consider various approaches to the interpretation of the organizational specifics of the university. Recreating organizational specifics, special attention is paid to the resulting product of the university. It is on the definition of the resulting product and its customers that the choice of optimal adaptation methods and, conse-quently, the guidelines for organizational development depends.Next, the forms of interaction of the organization with the external environment are analyzed. The au-thors do notdoubt that the university can be considered as a specific type of formal organization. However, its specificity (activities, type of personnel, environmental characteristics, etc.) does not imply the development of flexible structures.Taking into accountthe tasks of the university –the training of specialists and the develop-ment of science –the possibility of using forms and methods of adaptation associated with customer orientation as the main factor in changing the content of educational programs is being questioned. Considering customers on the resultant product of the university’s activities, the authors believe that the university’s orientation toward the production of educational services and the client (consumer of these services) con-tradicts thefulfillment of the university’s most important social functions –the train-ing of qualified specialists and the development of science.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.