Массовое высвобождение работников: политика стран ОЭСР
According to OECD statistics, in 2003–2013 annual incidence of job displacement varied from 1% to 7% of total
number of wage and salary workers aged 20–64. Labour reallocation is a necessary part of labor market flexibility
and economic growth however worker displacement generally also leads to an increase in unemployment and to a
decrease in the income of those dismissed. Therefore, a set of measures to mitigate the negative consequences of this process is becoming an important direction of labor market policy. Significant cross-country differences in the ratios of re-employment and the size of wage gaps between jobs indicate that a well-designed and effective labor market measures, as well as properly “tuned” institutions, can significantly reduce the social risks of layoffs. Employees of obsolete professions who require serious professional retraining are in the group of primary risk after the displacement. Given the increasing dynamism and flexibility of the labor market throughout the world, the development of a more targeted system of financial support for the dismissed which involves coordinating the payment of benefits of various types, as well as taking into account the interests of vulnerable workers who do not have time to gain the tenure necessary to participate in the voluntary insurance program, is needed. Present study outlines the main policies for mass layoffs in OECD countries. Particular attention is paid to the characteristics of the system of financial support for the displaced workers, including the specifics of unemployment benefits and severance pay, as well as the configuration of active programs in the labor market and the practices of the public employment service.
The modernization of Russian society and the transition to a market economy has changed the nature of the problems of social development and employment in different regions of Russia. Regional differences are generated by various factors. Some of these are the result of economic activity, including the free market and free competition. Others are tied in with a series of cultural and ethnic problems, such as some groups being drawn more towards a European culture, while others are drawn to the Asiatic culture. This may help or hinder the regions ability to cope with the modernization of Russia. This is a presentation of the results of a study on work and welfare in Russia, that began in December 1994. The study covers many topics such as poverty, employment or lack of, education, gender, and food consumption, in three areas of Russia: Moscow, St Petersburg and Voronezh.
In this paper the public-private wage gap is estimated by means both of the OLS and the quantile regression, which will provide a more complex picture of the distribution of the public-private sector wage gap. The author finds the existence of significant public-private wage gap (about 30%) considering both observable and unobservable characteristics of workers and jobs. Using the decomposition based on quantile regression helps to answer the question about the nature of the wage differences. The author comes to the conclusion that the main reason for the gap is the institutional mechanisms of public sector wages in Russia. The analysis is based on the data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) 2000-2010.
The article is based on the results of the survey of migrant workers from Central Asia in Moscow and Moscow region. One of the key issues of the study was the degree of adaptation of migrants to life in the capital. The article discusses the issue both from the point of view of experts on labor migration and of the migrants themselves.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.