Doctoral education in Russia is characterized by high drop-out rates. Many experts associate this problem with the low financial support of PhD students and their need to find employment during education process. However, the current discussion mainly relies not on the research data, but on expert opinions based on scanty statistics or on the individual cases. Based on a 2016 survey of PhD students of the leading Russian universities the authors assess the scope and types of employment of postgraduates, as well as the experience of those PhD students, who balance study time with work. The current position, work duties and workload of PhD students were analyzed in regard to learning experience perception and career prospects they have. The authors conclude that the balancing study and work may benefit to PhD student education process and professional experience, but only in case when current work duties correspond to the thesis topic. The challenges of balancing study and work are highlighted. The results can be useful for developing measures to reform doctoral education both at the university and at the state level.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.