Case-Based Decision Theory: From the Choice of Actions to the Reasoning about Theories
In the 1990's David Schmeidler and Itzhak Gilboa initiated the study of decision making under uncertainty in a completely new framework, without states but with data sets as the information on which to build choice behavior. While the first formulations of Case-Based Decision Theory (CBDT) aimed at applications in economic decision making, this theory which takes data as a primitive concept provides an alternative foundation for deriving beliefs and driving the choice of predictions. This opened a new perspective on old questions in statistics and artificial intelligence. In this review, we summarize these developments in Case-Based Decision Theory and highlight the immensely innovative nature of David Schmeidler's academic work.
The heterogeneity of our visual environment typically reduces the speed with which a singleton target can be found. Visual search theories explain this via nontarget similarities and dissimilarities that affect grouping, perceptual noise, etc. Here, we show that increasing the heterogeneity of a display can facilitate rather than inhibit visual search for size and orientation singletons when heterogeneous features smoothly fill the transition between highly distinguishable nontargets. We suggest that this smooth transition reduce the “segmentability” of dissimilar items to otherwise separate subsets making the visual system to treat them as a near-homogenous sets opposing to a singleton.
The personal variable of successful coping with stress, or «hardiness», is considered. The results of comparative research about hardiness in students of humanitarian and technical orientation of training are presented.
This article proposes a method of constructing dynamic neural network mathematical models that allow not only to diagnose the disease at the current time, but also to simulate the appearance and development of diseases in future periods of time, as well as to control their appearance and development by selecting the optimal lifestyle and optimal intake of drugs. It is assumed that the use of dynamic neural network medical systems, instead of static, allow doctors, before prescribing courses of treatment to patients, to test the effect of drugs not on patients, but on their virtual mathematical models. The action of the system is demonstrated by examples.
The article tells about the project, whose task is to describe the folklore tradition of Moscow, its spatial distribution, the types of folklore texts and practices existing in the modern metropolis, and their changes
Religious practices in Contemporary Society (The Case Study of Mother Goddess Beliefs ). Proceedings of International Conference.
The study concerns the veneration of saints in the traditional peasant culture of the XIX-early XXI century. and specifically - the legends of the saints, their interaction with literary and folklore tradition. Many literary lives of the saints are based on folklore legends, but sometimes the influence may have the opposite direction: the lives of saints being retold and changed in the oral tradition acquire the characteristics of folklore of legends. In the monograph the mechanisms of legends transformation and functioning are studied, The socio-cultural role and functions of folk legends about saints, their interaction with the literary lives of the saints, as well as a detailed analysis in the ethnographic and historical context of the corps of folklore texts, about the saints Alexander Oshevensky, Cyrill Chelmogorsky, Nil StoLobensky, Nikita Stylites and Irinarkh the Recluse.
The article discusses the concept of "religious person", the substructure of personality religious rights (religious consciousness and religious behavior and religious relations), analyzes the reasons for the classification types of believers, these foreign and domestic authors.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.