Мемра Мар Афрема «Об отшельниках» и основатели «мессалианства» в Эдессе IV века. Часть I: контекст и текст (1–100)
The article (being the 1st part of the cycle) is dedicated to the ascetic themes in Mār Aphrem the of Nisibis (St. Ephrem the Syrian) treated in different parts of his corpus. Asceticism is reflecxted in mār Aphrem under three main forms: city asceticism, wandering asceticism (xeniteia) and the sub-form of the latter, boskoi-asceticism. The wandering tradition got strog criticism in the Latin and Greek tradition as gyrovagi and ‘messalians’. In the Syriac tradition, the competition between wanderinf and coenobion lasted much longer. Aphrem’s mêmrā (metrical homily) On the hermits and solitaries belongs to the ascetical cycle and is interesting, first of all, by its description of the local forms of asceticism (īḥı̄ḏayūṯā) in Upper Mesopotamia and Syria. It describes the practices of desert hermitage and social self-isolation, which are associated with the initial stage of the ‘messalian’ movement which turns to be a form of the national Syrian asceticism. The translation of verses 1–100 of the memra accompanies the text.