Новая теоретическая модель для оценки социально-эмоциональных навыков в начальной школе
The number of studies and programmes on the social and emotional development in schools has dramatically increased in the recent years. There is no doubt now that research and development in this area on every level of education: from nursery to university. But, despite of wide distribution in the world leading education systems, Russian educational society doesn’t have neither the common nomenclature, nor the instruments for a large-scale assessment in this area. In this paper, we aim to provide the comprehensive review of the nomenclature, assessment and developmental programmes in the area of the social and emotional development. Also, we present the theoretical model, which can be used for the creation of the large-scale assessment instrument for primary schools in Russia.
By the end of primary school children acquire all the basic literacy and numeracy skills, but proficiency level of these skills varies greatly among children. SAM (Student's Achievement Monitoring) allows us to define the students’ proficiency level accurately. This article gives a brief overview of the toolkit, and describes the results of testing in one region of the Russian Federation. It also investigates the characteristics of the educational environment, which may be associated with the students’ test results.
The article describes the image of the village, created in elementary school textbooks. The research is based on the comparative perspective: we analyzes the content of textbooks of Soviet (1974-80), and post-Soviet period (2004-05). The analysis revealed in textbooks of the post-Soviet period the dominance of the rural environment under the urban one, of the rural labour in the village under all other types. In the post-Soviet textbooks the descriptions of village life and work of peasants are much less detailed and informative, than in Soviet textbooks. The presented portrait of the village is multicomponent (village is a breadwinner, a laborer, a source of vitality, "root system" of the citizen, the keeper of traditions), but the national romantic component is clearly dominated.
Dramatic political, socio-economic, and cultural transformation of Russia in recent decades are often compared to the reforms of Peter the Great. The ongoing reform of education, which is part of the changer, attracts international attention. There have been voices within the Czech: pedagogical public, growing in intensity in the past few years, pointing out the lack of information on the development of education in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union, on the transformation of the educational system, and on the problems solved by politicians, experts, as well as school practice in the multi-ethnic and multi-national state. These problems may be of interest not only to the witnesses of the era of Soviet pedagogy and intensive work and personal contacts with its representatives, but also to the younger generation of teachers and researchers. The aim of the publication is to draw attention to education in the Russian Federation, providing the Czech educational community, professionals, and the general public with up-to-date information, as well as documenting, from a critical-analytical perspective, the development, current situation, and trends in Russian schooling.
Meta-analytic research in psychology of academic performance proved that Big Five Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience predict scholastic achievements of university students (O’Connor, Paunonen, 2007; Poropat, 2009). But we claim that psychological predictiors of academic success depend on educational environment and can be culture-related. We examined 176 2nd and 3rd year economy and computer science university students in Russia with the Big Five – Ipsative version test (Shmelyov, 2010) and discovered that GPA and USE (United State Examination in Russia) scores are significantly correlated with Agreeableness (r = 0.15; p < 0.01 for GPA and r = 0.22 p < 0.01 for USE math) and Neuroticism (r = 0.2, p < 0.01 for GPA and r = -0,17; p < 0,01 for USE math). We suppose that the difference between our result and results provided by the meta-analyses mentioned above can be explained by the differences in educational environment in Russia and other countries. We assume that big number of classes and relatively small amount of individual and analytical assignments create the environment where Agreeableness and Neuroticism are important for the academic success.
The technique of acquaintance of students with the difference in the concepts of "multithreading" and "multitasking" in the form of a play is presented. There are the script, props description, the theoretical material, comments on the production.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.