Doubling Up or Moving Out? The Effect of International Labor Migration on Household Size
We use household panel data from Tajikistan to explore the change in living arrangements as a response to income shifts related to international labour migration. In addition, we analyse the interaction between the effect of idiosyncratic income increase resulting from a completed migration episode, and the effect of an aggregate shock – the global financial crisis – and show how different households adjust their household size during times of financial hardship. The empirical evidence indicates that while current migration is associated with an increase in household size, a completed migration episode two years before the interview was followed by family members moving out. At the same time, our empirical analysis demonstrates that migrant families doubled up in response to a financial crisis to the same extent as non‐migrant families, which suggests that labour migration in Tajikistan does not insure against economic shocks in the long run.
This article examines the intellectual genealogy of a central tenet of contemporary nationalist discourse in Tajikistan, namely, the Aryan myth as the idea of the Tajiks’ Aryan descent. The origins of this myth are dis- covered in Late Imperial Russia. Over the rst decades of the twentieth century, through the early Soviet period, the Tajik Aryan myth would transform from a narrative legitimizing Russian imperial rule to a myth of Tajik national identity. The article shows how Tajikistan’s imagining and formation as a nation-state was inextricably linked to the Aryan myth and to the way it was articulated by imperial scholars-turned-Soviet oriental- ists, such as Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Semenov (1873–1958). Taking the microhistorical perspective of a single life allows the author to highlight the local Central Asian dynamics of the complex imperial situation that paved the way to and accompanied Bolshevik nationalities policy. As a scholar with a certain political weight, Semenov managed to exploit the leeway for action in accordance with his own research interests (rather than acting as a mere instrument of the imperial and Soviet regimes in Central Asia). Consequently, the article argues that the process of delimiting borders and identities in 1920s Central Asia was in uenced not only by Moscow-based Bolsheviks and leading Central Asian Muslim political gures but also by Russian orientalists as distinctive historical actors.
This is a collection of scientific papers on migration studies.
The presented book review is devoted to “Otkhodniks” by Plusnin Ju., Zausaeva Ya., Zhidkevich N., Pozanenko A. (editor — S. Kordonsky). Otkhodnichestvo is a type of labor migration implying a scenario in which an adult, able-bodied family member temporarily leaves home to seek work in another area. Otkhodnichestvo has a long history in Russia but a new wave of its mass dissemination appeared in recent decades. The reviewed book defines a concept of otkhodnichestvo, considers what similarities and dissimilarities there are between this phenomenon and other forms of labor migration (i.e. jobbers, rotation workers, and temporary cross-border migrants). It reveals the otkhodniks’ motivation and economic patterns, describes typical social and demographic characteristics of contemporary wandering workers, evaluates otkhodniks’ cultural and social impact on local their community’s everyday life, etc. The book is based on a series of fieldwork studies conducted by the authors in small Russian towns over the last four years. In the review Barsukova discusses her impressions of the book, outlining its unusual genre. One uncontestable advantage of the book is an ethnographic material allowing readers to become immersed in all details of otkhodnik life. Otkhodniks usually come from small rural towns. They are forced to leave their homes to seek jobs in other areas because there are no opportunities for them to earn money in their permanent place of residence. Moreover, a key driver of the discussed form of labor migration is the otkhodniks’ aspiration to provide normal living conditions for their family members. The book review author highlights that otkhdoniks should be discussed not just in terms of their informal employment, the context of family relationship transformation should also be taken seriously into account.
This report reviews new mass media law adopted in Tajikistan.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.