Херсонес Таврический: пространственная организация и назначение укрепления на перешейке Маячного полуострова [Chersonesus Taurica: Spatial Organisation and Purpose of the Stronghold on the Isthmus of the Lighthouse Peninsula]
This article deals with Strabo’s παλαιὰ Χερρόνησος, namely the spatial organisation and purpose of the Stronghold (τείχη) on the isthmus of the Lighthouse Peninsula. The article describes the fortification of the Stronghold, establishes the date of its construction, which is the late 5th or early 4th century BC, presents a plan of the Stronghold and studies its zones (akropolis, central and harbour parts). The main result of the study is a conclusion about placing the garrison (φρουρά) on the akropolis of the Stronghold, which is therefore defined as φρούριον; this solves the problem of the purpose of the Stronghold. The construction of the Stronghold established the north-western border of Chersonesus on the Heracleian Peninsula, strengthened the control of the peninsula, the result of which was the beginning of exploitation of the chora.
Strabo’s “Ancient Chersonesus” in the Light of Archaeological Research of 1985‒1990
The paper presents results of excavations of fortified constructions on the isthmus of the Lighthouse Peninsula, where Strabo’s “ancient Chersonesus” is located. The main works were carried out by the author at the western wall, which dates from the end of the 5th to the beginning of the 4th century BC, and at a complex of constructions near this wall, which functioned from the first quarter to the end of the 4th century BC. The structure of the site points to its strategic role. The results of our excavations lead to the conclusion that the fortifications on the isthmus served as an outpost of the polis. The excavations also provide evidence that the Lighthouse Peninsula was the earliest chora of Chersonesus. The vacant spaces of the complex are interpreted as refuge places in case of danger for those who lived on the Lighthouse Peninsula. The excavations also clarify the spatial organisation of the fortifications on the isthmus.
Metal jewellery votives discovered at the “barbarian” mountain sanctuary of Eklizi-Burun (Crimea) are dated from the 1st to the 3rd centuries AD. Most of these items belong to the female costume known from funerary contexts of Central Crimea, which differ by their localization (Foothills and the Southern seashore), as well as by the peculiarities of burial rite (“inhumation’ vs. “cremation). A small part of the jewellery is characteristic only for the cemeteries on the Southern shore containing burials with the remains of cremation.
An analysis of the cultural niches, in which the jewellery items deposited in the sanctuary of Eklizi-Burun of Roman times were produced and used, suggests that its adherents came from the societies that lived on the Southern macro-slope of the Main ridge of the Crimean mountains and practiced cremation of the dead. Apparently, these people got in the Greco-Roman narrative tradition and local epigraphic documents of the Roman period as “Tauri”, “Scythian-Tauri”, and “Tauro-Scythians” inhabiting “Taurica”. Presumably, they appeared in the Mountain Crimea in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC (migrating from the areas of LaTénoid archaeological cultures?) and maintained their cultural identity until the beginning of the 5th century AD.
LAND DIVISION ON THE CHORA OF CHERSONESUS TAURICA AND THE PROBLEM OF STRABO’S ANCIENT CHERSONESUS Angelina A. Zedgenidze The paper examines some interconnected problems of the study of the ancient chora of Chersonesos, in particular land division of the Herakleian Peninsula and archaeological sites of the Mayachny Peninsula (Strabo’s ancient Chersonesus), where the author carried out excavations in 1985–1990. The author comes to the conclusion that the hypothesis of two stages in the formation of the chora of Chersonesus on the Herakleian Peninsula is still quite tenable. The Mayachny Peninsula, which is the western end of the Herakleian Peninsula, was divided first. It is thus the earliest chora of Chersonesus. Its division allowed the polis to secure the remaining part of the Herakleian Peninsula lying between Chersonesus and the Mayachny. The chora was planned according to a strictly regular pattern known as the system of Hippodamus of Miletus. This system formed the basis of both the city and the adjacent agricultural territory. On the isthmus of the Mayachny Peninsula a fortification was built. It defended the land plots and also functioned as an outpost of the polis.
The philosophical essay “What is Freedom” by Hannah Arendt though modest in extent, serves as a kind of a key deciphering and elucidating the underlying import of her major works written both before and after this essay, namely “The origins of totalitarianism”, “Vita activa”, “On revolution”, “On violence” etc. Arendt analyses such concepts as “freedom of the mind”, “freedom of the will”, showing that the roots of the very phenomenon of freedom lie in the political realm. Freedom is a faculty of man to begin something new, non-existent in this world. It is a capacity to interrupt “automatic” processes in natural as well as political sphere. In the Preface the translator places the questions raised in essay in a wider framework of Hannah Arendt’s work.
It is with great pleasure that we present the proceedings of the first international conference on the history and archaeology of Central Asia in Bordeaux. This conference was also the first international event focusing on Ancient Chorasmia, an occasion to put this too-often disregarded Eastern Iranian polity back on the map. Today this is more necessary than ever, in light of the most recent discoveries of the Karakalpak-Australian Expedition (KAE) at the site of Akchakhan-kala and on the Sultan-uiz-dag range that are completely reshaping our understanding of the art, religion and history of this region south of the Aral Sea.
Abstract from the conference "Ancient Relics of Chersonese". Sevastopol, 10-12 October, 2017.
"Ancient Relics of Chersonese". Proceedings of the International Academic Conference. Sevastopol, 10-12 October 2017.
La ville ancienne de Kelainai fut le centre urbain le plus important de la Phrygie du sud et la capitale de la satrapie de Phrygie. Elle commença à avoir une importance suprarégionale dès l'époque achéménide, lorsqu'elle devint un des lieux de résidence du grand roi Xerxès, puis du prince Cyrus le Jeune. A l'époque hellénistique, le roi séleucide Antiochos Ier Sôter (281-261 a. C.) refonda la ville, qui fut alors appelée Apamée, du nom de la mère du souverain. C'est là, en 188 a. C. , que fut négociée la paix entre Rome et le royaume séleucide. A l'époque romaine, Apamée fut qualifiée par Strabon de plus grand centre commercial de l'Asie après Ephèse. Malgré son importance historique, la ville n'avait jamais fait l'objet d'une investigation archéologique approfondie. L'étude systématique de ses vestiges antiques n'a commencé qu'en 2008, dans le cadre d'un projet franco-allemand cofinancé par l'Agence Nationale de la Recherche, la Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, la Région d'Aquitaine et d'autres institutions. Ce volume, le second volume de collection “Kelainai” continue la publication des résultats de ces recherches.