SMART CITIES AND 5G NETWORKS: AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGICAL AREA?
The term “smart city” has recently become greatly widespread in academic and political discourse. Nevertheless, this is rather a marketing term that unites a number of technological (and other) areas: Internet of Things (IoT), augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR), communication networks. The latest generation of networks is essential for the development of digital ecosystems of smart cities. It has been assumed that the smart city and 5G networks form an emerging technological area. The goal of the work is to study the structure of the development and implementation of new technologies for the urban environment on the sample of 5G-based technologies. For the analysis of new technologies in the selected subject area, a study of patent landscapes and scientometric analysis of the topic field has been conducted. The object of the scientometric analysis is the study of citation patterns. The use of the patent landscape is based on the information systems and databases of patent information developed by patent offices and commercial companies and consists of visualizing the logical connections between various indicators of patent activity, on the one hand, and technological and market trends, on the other. Together, the scientometric and patent landscape show the most promising areas of technological research. The results of the study can be used in further theoretical and applied research, in the formation of government policy in research and development, as well as in decision-making in the field of urban management.
The rapid growth of traffic and number of simultaneously available devices leads to the new challenges in constructing fifth generation wireless networks (5G). To handle with them various schemes of non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) were proposed. One of these schemes is Sparse Code Multiple Access (SCMA), which is shown to achieve better link level performance. In order to support SCMA signal decoding channel estimation is needed and sparse Bayesian learning framework may be used to reduce the requirement of pilot overhead. In this paper we propose a modification of sparse Bayesian learning based channel estimation algorithm that is shown to achieve better accuracy of user detection and faster convergence in numerical simulations.
Approaches to the formation of service quality evaluation in 4G networks and to the evaluation of service quality in the networks of the new (fifth) generation are considered. The metrics and approaches to this evaluation are proposed, and evaluation criteria are determined. Possible ways of 5G networks development are described.
Book of abstracts of the 8th International Urban Geographies of Post-Communist States Conference (CAT-ference 2019)
The fifth-generation wireless systems shall serve the traffic of various applications that impose different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. An important problem is how to efficiently multiplex flows with different QoS requirements having a limited amount of channel resources. In this paper, we study the problem of multiplexing enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) traffic and Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) traffic in the uplink channel. While the eMBB traffic is served with scheduled (grant-based) access to maximize throughput, the URLLC traffic is served with grant-free access to satisfy strict latency requirement. We propose a novel flexible scheme for eMBB/URLLC multiplexing that is based on non-orthogonal multiple access. As a part of this scheme, we develop scheduling and power allocation algorithm for eMBB users that takes into account the constraints imposed by grant-free URLLC transmissions. With simulations, we compare the performance of the proposed scheme with the existing ones and show that our scheme increases throughput for the eMBB users while satisfying strict QoS requirements for the URLLC users. Additionally, we demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly reduces the protocol overhead induced by reconfiguration of grant-free URLLC transmissions, which is very important in case of mobile URLLC users.
The issue of capital city relocation is a topic of debate for more than forty countries around the world. In this first book to discuss the issue, Vadim Rossman offers an in-depth analysis of the subject, highlighting the global trends and the key factors that motivate different countries to consider such projects, analyzing the outcomes and drawing lessons from recent capital city transfers worldwide for governments and policy-makers.
Satisfying heterogeneous Quality of Service requirements of different applications in 5G systems requires tight interaction between the network and the applications. Although being pushed to 3GPP, SAND, the most mature solution enabling such interaction and cross-layer optimization for video streaming, has many limitations and drawbacks. This paper fills the gaps found in the SAND specification and enriches its applicability, by introducing a new general platform called xStream. xStream enables communication between various applications and the 5G system and opens the door for many innovative solutions for various types of traffic as well as optimal resource slicing (not only video ones). With extensive simulation, it is shown that xStream provides benefits for both OTT service providers and network operators significantly improving QoE for their customers.
The emerging fifth-generation (5G) wireless technology will need to harness the massively unused millimeter-wave (mmWave) spectrum to meet the projected acceleration in mobile traffic demand. Today, the available range of mmWave-based solutions is already represented by IEEE 802.11ad (WiGig), IEEE 802.15.3c, WirelessHD, and ECMA-387 standards, with more to come in the following years. As the key performance-related aspects of these enabling technologies are rapidly taking shape, the primary research challenge shifts to characterizing network energy efficiency, among other system-level parameters. This is particularly important in scenarios that are not handled by current 4G communication networks, including congested public places, homes, and offices. In these dense deployments, wireless wearable devices are increasingly proliferating to assist in diverse user needs. However, mmWave operation in crowded environments, and especially for multiple neighboring personal networks, is not nearly well-understood. Bridging this gap, we conduct a full-fledged energy efficiency assessment of mmWave-based “high-end” wearables that employ advanced antenna beamforming techniques. Our rigorous analytical results shed light on the underlying scaling laws for the interacting mmWave-based networks based on IEEE 802.11ad and quantify the impact of beamforming quality on system energy efficiency under various conditions. Furthermore, we look at the system optimization potential subject to realistic hardware capabilities.
Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM Workshop on Cloudified Architectures for 5G and beyond Systems
Outage events caused by dynamic blockage of a radio signal propagation path are one of the key challenges in 5G millimetre-wave (mmWave) cellular networks. To mitigate them, Third Generation Partnership Project standardisation has recently ratified multi-connectivity techniques aiming to enable user connectivity to several base stations simultaneously, while switching between them whenever the currently active connection becomes blocked. A closed-form upper bound on the probability density function of the respective system capacity in a random field of moving blockers is obtained.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.