People and Money: Incomes, Consumption, and Financial Behavior of the Population of Russian Regions in 2000–2017
Macroeconomic dynamics affects incomes of regions’ population and level of poverty: positive shifts in the distribution of regions in relation to these indicators slowed down in the 2010s and were replaced by a negative shift (more apparent in poverty rate) during the crisis of 2014–2017. Income dynamics had a stronger effect on consumption structure and less on population financial behavior. The share of food expenditures is declined in all regions until the 2014 crisis; the most developed regions have the lowest percentage. Structural shift in expenditures in favor of durable goods, including housing, is far from complete in most regions. The increase in the share of expenditures for services is largely due to the growth of tariffs for public utility services. Regional differences are small, with the exception of the Far North regions. The share of spending on human capital reproduction is low and varies slightly between regions. The population of “rich” regions prefers to spend money on recreation and entertainment, but these expenses are shrunken during the last crisis. Individuals' savings behavior is mostly developed in the largest federal cities. Overdue loans are higher in underdeveloped republics and in resource-producing regions, whose population seeks to maintain the level of consumption using loans. The main factor in change structure of consumption and financial behavior is the population incomes, but demographic, settlement and institutional factors must be considered to explain regional differences.
The article deals with the issue of poverty in Russia and characterizes specific features of the poor, which vary depending on the theoretical and methodological approaches to poverty. An empirical base of the research is Russian Longitudinal monitoring survey 2005–2011. The paper tends to cover the issues of poverty, which increase the probability of falling into poverty in modern Russia. The non-economic factors observed are: in particular household size, composition, type of terrain, and home to the poor dependents, gender, risk, etc. The paper also touches upon the issue of how modern social policies can reduce these risks and ways to improve it.
In theory, a poverty line can be defined as the cost of a common (inter-personally comparable) utility level across a population. But how can one know if this holds in practice? For groups sharing common consumption needs but facing different prices, the theory of revealed preference can be used to derive testable implications of utility consistency knowing only the "poverty bundles" and their prices. Heterogeneity in needs calls for extra information. We argue that subjective welfare data offer a credible means of testing utility consistency across different needs groups. A case study of Russia's official poverty lines shows how revealed preference tests can be used in conjunction with qualitative information on needs heterogeneity. The results lead us to question the utility consistency of Russia's official poverty lines.
This article analyzes the correlation between alcohol consumption patterns in Russian cities and the characteristics of consumers, including their social status. The empirical dataset used in this study was generated from the Russian Target Group Index for 2000–2010 and produced by Synovate Comcon. The methods used in the study include correlation analyses, cluster analyses and correspondence analyses. The results of the study confirm that differences in alcohol consumption patterns are important characteristics of social groups — stratified by gender, age, education and income — in Russia. Beer, vodka and other spirits are typically consumed by men, whereas wine, champagne and liquors are typical consumed by women. The different social classes also have different chosen beverages: the highest social classes prefer wine, champagne, cognac, whisky and exotic beverages such as rum and tequila. The volume of consumed alcohol is not an indicator of social class. Beer and vodka — beverages consumed by all social groups — are mostly consumed by the poorer and less educated. This study also identified the following consumer clusters: “light drink lovers” (beer-oriented consumption), the “masculine consumer” (consumption of beer and vodka), the “feminine consumer” (wine- and champagne-oriented consumption), and the “eclectic type” (multi-oriented consumption). These clusters have different social and demographic characteristics. In modern Russia, patterns of alcohol consumption and the social class of the consumer tend to be highly correlated. Variegated consumption patterns associated with the postmodern lifestyle were detected in fewer than 5% consumers of alcohol; these consumers tended to be educated, well-off, young and employed in executive positions.
The Association of antitrust experts, together with FAS Russia, has prepared a new review of administrative appeal practices for the I quarter of 2020. The document discusses the most relevant positions of the FAS Presidium and appeal commissions, which the Antimonopoly authorities will use when considering similar and comparable cases.
The book illustrates practices of Russian magistracy cases in regional and leading universities. The authors covered core issues, models and development points of the master's institute in Russia. Prospects for its development were also indicated. The paperwork presents the cases of graduate schools, magistracy design in the context of changing norms, rules and institutions at Russian universities. This research is the result of a net-team working in the project “The Birth of Russian Masters” (supporting by the Potanin Foundation). The publication can be recommended to specialists in the educational sciences, researchers of managerial practices at universities, teachers, employees related to the implementation of practical programs and a wide range of readers.
This paper is based on the fieldwork carried out in Moscow among Muslim migrants. The research is focused on the practices of ritual healing and expelling djinn in the context of migration and urban post-secular environment. I am interested in self-reflection and introspection of all the participants of the treatment – a mullah, his patients, their relatives, and even opponents to these Muslim practices. In this study, it is not my intention to delve too deeply into the analysis of what possession is or determine its causes, but rather to look at specific situations from my field work through the lens of modernity, morality, authority and precarity, in order to attempt to present the experience of possession and my informants’ struggle against it in all its richness and complexity.
In this article, secrecy – the practice, infrastructure, and ideology of responsibly concealing information – is described using the empirical example of nuclear laboratories subordinated to the Soviet atomic agency. The author pays special attention to organizational infrastructures of secrecy and material deformations of secret research. On the basis of published documents, nuclear memoirs, in-depth interviews from the collection of the Obninsk project and a unique declassified archive, the author demonstrates how between the mid-1940s and the beginning of the 1970s the concern for hiding nuclear knowledge and technology was both embedded in research practices and deformed them. The laboratory is considered as the main unit of research activity in the Soviet atomic project; the early stage of the implementation of large-scale nuclear programs associated with the concentration of scientific forces, resources, secrecy, and development of a specific style of Big Soviet science is identified as a “lab age”. Secrecy in its becoming emergence and its archive are described via the case of Moscow–Obninsk radiochemists. Secret laboratory life is curated depictedin the text as an assemblage of secret matter, spaces of regime economy, espionage bodies and additional inscription devices in action. The laboratory routines, the author suggests, changed the methods of producing scientific facts, transmuted physicists into secret physicists, and helped shape the patterns of the Soviet culture of secrecy.
We integrated models of discrimination of immigrants by combining established approaches to prejudice and discrimination towards immigrants (proximate explanations) using assumptions of Evolutionary-Coalitional Theory (ultimate explanations). Based on this perspective, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and multicultural ideology (MCI) were considered as sociofunctional motives for attitudes towards immigrants. We examined relationships between individual differences in beliefs about the social world (dangerous worldview and competitive worldview) as more distal antecedents, and RWA, SDO, and MCI as more proximal antecedents, and the endorsement of discrimination of immigrants in the socioeconomic domain by Russian majority group members as the outcome. Data were collected among 576 participants from 33 regions in Russia, using online social media. MCI predicted endorsement of discrimination of immigrants by Russian majority group members better than did RWA and SDO. SDO predicted only economic aspects of the endorsement of discrimination. The results are discussed within the Russian context, with its ethnically diverse composition of the population and high migration rates.